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Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin

Full Name Владимир "Ленин" Ильич Ульянов

(Vladimir "Lenin" Ilyich Ulyanov)

Born 22 April 1870
Status Deceased
Died 1 September 1918
Allegiance Flag-SOV Soviet Russia
Political Party The Bolsheviks
Important Events Russian Civil War

Vladimir Lenin was the leader of the failed communist revolution in Russia, leading to Russia's defeat in the Weltkrieg and the harsh Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.

History

Early Life

Lenin was born in the Russian Empire in the year 1870 on April 22, Lenin like the ideas brought upon by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in The Communist Manifesto

Exile

During his life in exile of Siberia (The Asian Part of Russia), until the 1900s, we went to Western Europe

Revolution of 1905

In January 1905, the Bloody Sunday massacre of protesters in St. Petersburg sparked a spate of civil unrest in the Russian Empire known as the Revolution of 1905.[78] Lenin urged Bolsheviks to take a greater role in the events, encouraging violent insurrection.[79] In doing so, he adopted SR slogans regarding "armed insurrection", "mass terror", and "the expropriation of gentry land", resulting in Menshevik accusations that he had deviated from orthodox Marxism.[80] In turn, he insisted that the Bolsheviks split completely with the Mensheviks; many Bolsheviks refused, and both groups attended the Third RSDLP Congress, held in London in April 1905.[81] Lenin presented many of his ideas in the pamphlet Two Tactics of Social Democracy in the Democratic Revolution, published in August 1905. Here, he predicted that Russia's liberal bourgeoisie would be sated by a transition to constitutional monarchy and thus betray the revolution; instead he argued that the proletariat would have to build an alliance with the peasantry to overthrow the Tsarist regime and establish the "provisional revolutionary democratic dictatorship of the proletariat and the peasantry".[82]

The uprising has begun. Force against Force. Street fighting is raging, barricades are being thrown up, rifles are cracking, guns are booming. Rivers of blood are flowing, the civil war for freedom is blazing up. Moscow and the South, the Caucasus and Poland are ready to join the proletariat of St. Petersburg. The slogan of the workers has become: Death or Freedom! —Lenin on the Revolution of 1905[83]

In response to the revolution of 1905—which had failed to overthrow the government—Tsar Nicholas II accepted a series of liberal reforms in his October Manifesto. In this climate, Lenin felt it safe to return to St. Petersburg.[84] Joining the editorial board of Novaya Zhizn ("New Life"), a radical legal newspaper run by Maria Andreyeva, he used it to discuss issues facing the RSDLP.[85] He encouraged the party to seek out a much wider membership, and advocated the continual escalation of violent confrontation, believing both to be necessary for a successful revolution.[86] Recognising that membership fees and donations from a few wealthy sympathisers were insufficient to finance the Bolsheviks' activities, Lenin endorsed the idea of robbing post offices, railway stations, trains, and banks. Under the lead of Leonid Krasin, a group of Bolsheviks began carrying out such criminal actions, the best known taking place in June 1907, when a group of Bolsheviks acting under the leadership of Joseph Stalin committed an armed robbery of the State Bank in Tiflis, Georgia.[87]

Although he briefly supported the idea of reconciliation between Bolsheviks and Mensheviks,[88] Lenin's advocacy of violence and robbery was condemned by the Mensheviks at the Fourth Party Congress, held in Stockholm in April 1906.[89] Lenin was involved in setting up a Bolshevik Centre in Kuokkala, Grand Duchy of Finland, which was at the time a semi-autonomous part of the Russian Empire, before the Bolsheviks regained dominance of the RSDLP at its Fifth Congress, held in London in May 1907.[90] As the Tsarist government cracked down on opposition—both by disbanding Russia's legislative assembly, the Second Duma, and by ordering its secret police, the Okhrana, to arrest revolutionaries—Lenin fled Finland for Switzerland.[91] There he tried to exchange those banknotes stolen in Tiflis that had identifiable serial numbers on them.[92]

Alexander Bogdanov and other prominent Bolsheviks decided to relocate the Bolshevik Centre to Paris; although Lenin disagreed, he moved to the city in December 1908.[93] Lenin disliked Paris, lambasting it as "a foul hole", and while there he sued a motorist who knocked him off his bike.[94] Lenin became very critical of Bogdanov's view that Russia's proletariat had to develop a socialist culture in order to become a successful revolutionary vehicle. Instead, Lenin favoured a vanguard of socialist intelligentsia who would lead the working-classes in revolution. Furthermore, Bogdanov – influenced by Ernest Mach – believed that all concepts of the world were relative, whereas Lenin stuck to the orthodox Marxist view that there was an objective reality independent of human observation.[95] Bogdanov and Lenin holidayed together at Maxim Gorky's villa in Capri in April 1908;[96] on returning to Paris, Lenin encouraged a split within the Bolshevik faction between his and Bogdanov's followers, accusing the latter of deviating from Marxism.[97]

Lenin undertook research at the British Museum in London. Lenin undertook research at the British Museum in London. In May 1908, Lenin lived briefly in London, where he used the British Museum Reading Room to write Materialism and Empirio-criticism, an attack on what he described as the "bourgeois-reactionary falsehood" of Bogdanov's relativism.[98] Lenin's factionalism began to alienate increasing numbers of Bolsheviks, including his former close supporters Alexei Rykov and Lev Kamenev.[99] The Okhrana exploited his factionalist attitude by sending a spy, Roman Malinovsky, to act as a vocal Lenin supporter within the party. Various Bolsheviks expressed their suspicions about Malinovsky to Lenin, although it is unclear if the latter was aware of the spy's duplicity; it is possible that he used Malinovsky to feed false information to the Okhrana.[100]

In August 1910, Lenin attended the Eighth Congress of the Second International—an international meeting of socialists—in Copenhagen as the RSDLP's representative, following this with a holiday in Stockholm with his mother.[101] With his wife and sisters he then moved to France, settling first in Bombon and then Paris.[102] Here, he became a close friend to the French Bolshevik Inessa Armand; some biographers suggest that they had an extra-marital affair from 1910 to 1912.[103] Meanwhile, at a Paris meeting in June 1911, the RSDLP Central Committee decided to move their focus of operations back to Russia, ordering the closure of the Bolshevik Centre and its newspaper, Proletari.[104] Seeking to rebuild his influence in the party, Lenin arranged for a party conference to be held in Prague in January 1912, and although 16 of the 18 attendants were Bolsheviks, he was heavily criticised for his factionalist tendencies and failed to boost his status within the party.[105]

Moving to Kraków in the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, a culturally Polish part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, he used Jagellonian University's library to conduct research.[106] He stayed in close contact with the RSDLP, which was operating in the Russian Empire, convincing the Duma's Bolshevik members to split from their parliamentary alliance with the Mensheviks.[107] In January 1913, Stalin – whom Lenin referred to as the "wonderful Georgian" – visited him, and they discussed the future of non-Russian ethnic groups in the Empire.[108] Due to the ailing health of both Lenin and his wife, they moved to the rural town of Biały Dunajec,[109] before heading to Bern for Nadya to have surgery on her goitre.[110]

Assassination

After giving a speech to the workers of the "Hammer and Sickle" factory in Moscow, while Lenin was leaving the building he was called out to be a member of the crowd. In turning to respond he was shot three times by a revolver, one bullet passed through Lenin's coat, the other two struck him; one passing through his neck, puncturing part of his left lung and the other lodging in his left shoulder. His assassin was Left SR member, Fanya Kaplan.

Lenin was taken back to the Kremlin, fearing further attacks against his life, but was unable to get the correct medical attention required to save his life, he succumbed to his wounds two days later.

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