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This page includes a broad yet in-depth timeline about every important event in the world of Kaiserreich between the start of the Weltkrieg in mid 1914 and the dawn of 1936. Timelines with a focus on specific countries/regions, which often include very miniscule details about the respective region's history, can be found here:


Main article: Weltkrieg
Date Event Description Picture
28 June 1914 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand While visiting the Bosnian provincial capital of Sarajevo, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie are assassinated by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip, a Black Hand agent with secret ties to the Serbian armed forces, triggering the July Crisis. Austria-Hungary sends an ultimatum to Serbia, the contents of which are deliberately made unacceptable to the Serbs, while the German chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg promises Austria a "blank cheque" of unconditional support in case of war with Serbia.
28 July 1914 Outbreak of the Great War After a month of failed attempts to deescalate the crisis, the great powers of Europe break into open conflict, triggering a chain reaction of war declarations. With full German support, Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia, followed by Germany declaring war on Russia on August 1st when the latter refuse to stop the mobilization of their army. France enters the war two days later due to their alliance with Russia.
4 August 1914 Invasion of Belgium Germany, keen on capturing Paris in order to knock France out of the war as fast as possible, executes the Schlieffen Plan by invading Belgium in an effort to bypass the Séré de Rivières fortification system along the German-French border. However, due to the 1839 Treaty of London guaranteeing Belgian neutrality, Great Britain intervenes and is brought onto the Allied side. The Royal Navy begins its naval blockade of Germany, leading to major food and material shortages later on.
17 August 1914 Russian invasion of East Prussia The Russians launch an unexpected offensive deep into East Prussian, catching the Germans by surprise. Gumbinnen, Lötzen, Insterburg and many villages are pillaged and set aflame, with the local population subject to atrocities. However, at the Battles of Tannenberg and of the Masurian lakes two weeks later, the Germans win decisive victories and almost destroy the Russian First Army. The architects of these victories, Generaloberst von Hindenburg and Generalmajor Ludendorff, would go on to play key roles in the final German victory.
23 August 1914 Japanese declaration of war Honoring the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, the Empire of Japan joins the war on the Allied side. By the end of the year, all of the German colonial possessions in Asia and the Pacific; i.e. Kiautschou on the Shandong peninsula, German Samoa and German New Guinea; are under either Japanese or British occupation.
3 September 1914 State Collapse in Albania When Wilhelm zu Wied, elected Prince of Albania since spring, leaves the country after muslim peasant rebels capture the capital of Durrës, the Principality of Albania completely collapses into anarchy. The International Gendarmerie is withdrawn, and soon after, Albania becomes the plaything of its neighbors: The Greek advance into Northern Epirus, the Italians occupy Vlorë & Sazan Island and the Serbians sign a secret pact with the Albanian military officer Essad Pasha Toptani to expand their influence in Albania.
11 September 1914
Russian invasion of Galicia

The Russians secure a victory against the Austrians, successfully establishing themselves in eastern Galicia after capturing the city of Lemberg. Nonetheless, the Austrian garrison at Przemyśl would hold out until early 1915, and the Germans advance into Russian Poland and capture of the city of Łódź prevents the planned Russian offensive towards Silesia and Posen.
12 September 1914 Failure of the Schlieffen Plan A French victory at the First Battle of the Marne halts the German advance to Paris around 100 kilometres east of the capital. Simultaneously, a series of outflanking attempts in northern France and northwestern Belgium, known as the Race to the Sea, ends with the indecisive First Battle of Ypres. By October, the mobile warfare phase of the Western Front has ended, and five years of trench warfare begin.
9 October 1914 Maritz Rebellion In South Africa, pro-German Boers under the leadership of Manie Maritz launch an armed insurrection against their British overlords known as the "Maritz Rebellion" in an effort to reestablish the South African Republic. Upon entering German South Africa in September, they had signed a secret agreement with the Germans instead of assisting the British South African force in the Battle of Sandfontein. When the uprising is crushed in early 1915, Maritz escapes to Europe.
29 October 1914 Ottoman declaration of war The Ottoman Empire, thanks to its long-standing ties to Germany, joins the war on the side of the Central Powers after opening fire on the Russian Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol. In August, Constantinople had signed a secret alliance with Germany against Russia and had allowed German war ships illegal passage through the Dardanelles during the pursuit of Goeben and Breslau. Soon after, British Indian forces land at Basra in Mesopotamia, while Russian forces begin to clash with the Turks in the Caucasus.
15 December 1914 Austrian invasion of Serbia halted With the Battle of Kolubara ending in a Serbian victory, following the Battle of Cer and the Battle of Drina in late summer and autumn, the Austrian invasion of Serbia comes to a halt for the rest of the 1914 and the front would remain largely stagnant until autumn 1915. After the disaster in Galicia, it is yet another major humiliation for the Austro-Hungarian high command.


Date Event Description Picture
18 January 1915 Twenty-One Demands The Japanese set before the Chinese government the so-called Twenty-One Demands, which would effectively turn China into a Japanese protectorate, violating the unwritten "Open-Door Policy" upheld by the United States of America. President Yuan Shikai eventually accepts - a very unpopular move, which, together with his attempt to crown himself the new emperor later that year, would lead to the National Protection War and his eventual downfall.
Twenty-One Demands.jpg
23 January 1915 Chilembwe uprising In British-controlled Nyasaland, Baptist minister John Chilembwe incites a revolt against the colonial government's recruitment of porters for the war effort. The rebels attack the Livingstone Bruce Plantation and kill three white settlers, but a subsequent raid on the weapons cache at Blantyre is unsuccessful. Government troops besiege the rebel capital of Mbombwe and the rebels flee towards Portuguese East Africa, but most are captured and Chilembwe himself is shot dead by border patrol.
John Chilembwe.jpg
7 February 1915 Winter offensives in the East The Germans and Austrians launch offensives in Masuria and the Carpathians. While the Austrians fail to recapture Galicia, they manage to prevent further Russian advances toward Hungary, and the Germans are able to march deep into Poland again and expel most of the remaining Russian forces from German territory. This victory is another success for the Hindenburg/Ludendorff partnership.
Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes.webp
15 February 1915 Singapore Mutiny In Singapore, 850 Muslim soldiers of the British Indian 5th Light Infantry regiment mutiny against their British superiors as they are about to embark for Hong Kong, acting under the misapprehension that they would be shipped to the Middle East and made to fight against Ottoman Empire. The mutiny is only suppressed after French, Russian and Japanese ships arrive with reinforcements. The Singapore Mutiny is the largest of similar events that occur throughout January and February all over British South & Southeast Asia. Some would come to believe that the revolts were orchestrated by the Germans and carried out by the Berlin Committee and the Ghadar Movement.
Singapore Mutiny.webp
17 February 1915 Beginning of the Gallipoli Campaign In an ill-fated effort to knock the Ottomans out of the war, Allied troops land near Gallipoli in February, hoping to gain control of the Dardanelles. The Gallipoli Campaign would evolve into a disaster and Allies forced to withdraw at the year's end. The catastrophe at Gallipoli would heavily taint the reputation of British First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill, but would also see the rise of a young and charismatic Turkish military leader, Mustafa Kemal Pasha.
22 February 1915 German campaign of unrestricted submarine warfare With the goal of pressuring the British to end their naval blockade, Germany officially launches a campaign of unrestricted submarine warfare to strangle the British navy without directly engaging them with the High Seas Fleet; prior attempts to do the latter had resulted in failures, much to the dismay of State Secretary of the Navy Alfred von Tirpitz. While the submarine campaign turns out to be a tremendous success for the Germans, the fact that many neutral vessels fall victim to German torpedoes soon causes major tensions. After the sinking of the RMS Lusitania and the SS Arabic, which causes the death of several American citizens, Berlin gives in to American pressure and puts a halt to the unrestricted submarine campaign, instead introducing restricted submarine warfare in accordance with the prize law, a move that is protested by Tirpitz and German right-wing circles.
22 April 1915 Second Battle of Ypres On the Western Front, the lines remain static, but the fighting increases in brutality, with chlorine gas being first used during the Second Battle of Ypres on the 22nd of April. Allied offensives in Champagne and Artois later that year end indecisively or in German victories.
24 April 1915 Beginning of the Armenian Genocide After Armenian rebels in the eastern Anatolian city of Van fraternize with Russian soldiers and actively resist approaching Turkish forces, the Young Turk government in Constantinople brands Armenians officially as traitors to the nation. Hundreds of Armenians intellectuals are arrested and detained, an event known as the "Red Sunday"; five days later, the Tehcir Law is passed, authorizing the deportation of the Ottoman Empire's Armenian population. 600,000 to one-and-half million Armenians would perish in the next three years.
23 May 1915 Italian declaration of War Italy joins the war on the Allied side despite its public defensive alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary, the Triple Alliance. In April, the Italians had signed a secret treaty with the Entente that had promised Italy far-reaching territorial concessions in Tyrol, on the Adriatic Coast, in Albania and in Africa. The fighting between Italy and Austria-Hungary along the Julian Alps quickly devolves trench warfare, culminating in over ten Battles of the Isonzo.
13 July 1915 The Great Russian Retreat After several pressing Austro-German offensives in Podlasie, along the Baltic coast and in Galicia throughout spring and summer, the Russians decide to launch the "Great Retreat", a strategic withdrawal deep into the Russian inland. On their way, they are pursued by German forces, who manage to capture all of Poland, Courland and Lithuania before the end of the year. It is yet another glorious victory for Hindenburg and Ludendorff, who soon after establish total military control over the occupied territories in the east, called "das Land Ober Ost".
Siegessonne im Osten.jpg
28 July 1915 American Invasion of Haiti When Haitian President Vilbrun Guillaume Sam is lynched by an angy mob after executing 167 political prisoners, the United States, fearing that the government authority would now fall into the hands of the populist Caco rebels, which would endanger American financial interests, decide to intervene militarily. What follows is the complete military occupation of the country for the duration of the next one and a half decades.
5 October 1915 Allied Landing at Salonica After rumours become loud that Bulgaria has entered into secret negotiations with Germany and that the Bulgarian armed forces are being mobilized for an offensive war, both the Serbians and the neutral Greeks call the French and British to help. Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos, despite concerns of the pro-German King Constantine, offers the Allies to station troops at Salonica as a potential Allied stronghold in case of Bulgarian aggression. The Allied troops arrive on 5th October and the Macedonian Front is officially opened shortly after, but Greece does not officially join the war yet as Venizelos is forced to resign a few days later.
14 October 1915 Bulgarian Declaration of War Bulgaria, which had been the target of diplomatic overtures by both the Allies and the Central Powers since the beginning of the war, joins the war on the side of the Central Powers after they are promised Vardar Macedonia plus the part of Old Serbia to the east of the Morava river and, in case Greece or Romania attack Bulgaria or its allies without provocation, the territories in Thrace and Dobruja lost in 1913, relieving the struggling Austrians in the Balkans.
Bulgaria ww1.jpg
17 November 1915 Volta-Bani War In response to the enaction of conscription in French West Africa and continued brutal treatment by the colonial government, indigenous Africans began an uprising in several small villages that soon spreads throughout western Upper Volta and much of French Sudan. Two suppression campaign organized by the French fail in the face of fierce opposition and superior tactics, but after about a year the government is able to defeat the insurgents and imprisons or executes their leaders.
Volta-Bani War.jpg
25 November 1915 Invasion of Serbia After a new attempt to invade Serbia is launched after Bulgaria's entry into into the war, this time from all sides, Central Powers force manage to capture most of Morava and Macedonia and crush the Serbian forces during the Battles of Morava, Ovche Pole and Kosovo. The remnants of the Serbian Army, trapped in no man's land, decides to retreat over the Albanian mountains with the goal to reach the Adriatic & evacuate to Allied-occupied Corfu. During this so-called Great Retreat, over 200,000 people die in the cold winter. Serbia falls under complete military occupation and Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire finally have a direct land connection to Austria-Hungary and Germany.
Serbian retreat through Albanian mountains, 1915.jpg
7 December 1915 Siege of Kut After gradually advancing towards Baghdad throughout the year, the British invasion of Ottoman Mesopotamia is halted at Ctesiphon, forcing the remaining British troops to retreat to the fortress city of Kut, which soon finds itself under siege by the Turks. The British garrison would surrender in April 1916 and the the survivors are marched to imprisonment at Aleppo deep in the Syrian desert, leading to countless deaths.


Date Event Description Picture
17 January 1916 Invasion of Montenegro After the fall of Serbia, Austro-Hungarian troops advance into the mountains of Montenegro. The royal family excluding Prince Mirko flees abroad, a military administration is instated in Cetinje, just like in neighboring Serbia. A guerilla war on the countryside would plague the occupied territory until the end of the war.
Kapitulation Montenegros.jpg
18 February 1916 Surrender of German Cameroon After almost one and a half years, the German garrison at Mora in Cameroon surrenders to the French and British, and with it, all of German Cameroon falls in the hands of the enemy. Almost all German colonies now find themselves under Allied occupation; Togoland had already fallen in late 1914, Southwest Africa after the Battle of Otavi in July 1915. The only colony which is still mostly free from foreign occupation is German East Africa - it is here that under the leadership of Governor Heinrich Schnee and Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck the German forces play a game of cat and mouse with the Allies until the end of the war.
21 February 1916 Battle of Verdun The Germans launch the Battle of Verdun, a brainchild of Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn, who believes that a breakthrough in the west might no longer be possible and that the French have to be "bled white" in a devastating battle which would inflict massive casualties. In reality however, all sides bleed equally in a battle which soon loses its military objective; the Battle of Verdun eventually turns into the longest and most deadly engagement of the war, and yet is not able to change the course of the Weltkrieg.
9 March 1916 Portuguese Declaration of War Germany declares war on Portugal after Portuguese troops confiscate German ships interned in Portuguese ports on British pressure. The Portuguese Expeditionary Corps would serve on the Western Front until the end of the war and German colonial forces would later on occupy large swathes of Portuguese Mozambique, a great blow to the small republic's prestige.
14 March 1916 Pancho Villa Expedition After the former Mexican revolutionary chief turned guerrilla fighter Pancho Villa stages an attack on the American town of Columbus, New Mexico, the US government decides for a full-blown '¨Punitive Expedition' in Mexico, hunting down Pancho Villa in the northern Mexican State of Chihuahua; while the American forces under General Pershing are not able to find or capture Villa after nearly a year of searching, confrontations with local Mexican soldiers almost escalate into a war. Following failed negotiations with the Mexican 'Constitutionalist' government, unsuccessful, the US army finally leaves in early 1917, having further damaged American-Mexican relations.
Punitive Expedition Cartoon.jpg
16 March 1916 Anglo-Egyptian Darfur Expedition Britain and Egypt organize a joint military operation against the Sultanate of Darfur after Sultan Ali Danar renounces his allegiance to the Anglo-Egyptian government and declares for the Ottoman Empire. A force of around 20,000 men under the command of Lt. Colonel Philip James Vandeleur Kelly decisively defeats the Fur Army at Beringia and occupy the capital; after the sultan is killed in action in November, Britain formally annexes Darfur into Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan camel soldier.jpg
24 March 1916 Sussex Incident The passenger ferry SS Sussex is torpedoed by the Germans in the English Channel after the reintroduction of the so-called "intensified submarine warfare campaign" earlier this year. Several American citizens are injured and President Wilson, on public pressure, declares that if Germany continues the practice, the United States would break diplomatic relations with Berlin. A few weeks later, Germany gives in and halts the campaign for the second time - once again with immense rightist backlash, spearheaded by the recently dismissed Alfred von Tirpitz.
24 April 1916 Easter Rising Because of the delay of the implementation of Home Rule in Ireland due to the war, pro-independence Irish Volunteers plan to stage a national uprising with minor German material support. Dissent, indecision, and miscommunication among the revolutionaries, however, result in only a small group in Dublin taking up arms against the British - the insurrection is quickly crushed. Sixteen of the rebel leaders are immediately executed by a military tribunal in what proved to be a fateful decision, as it would strengthen Irish nationalism in the long-term.
5 May 1916 American Invasion of the Dominican Republic After news reach the Americans that the Dominican Minister of War Desiderio Arias is alledgedly planning a coup against President Juan Isidro Jimenes Pereyra, the US Navy steps in once again and soon establishes a puppet regime. Similar to Haiti, all of the country falls under American occupation for the duration of the coming years, until the eventual withdrawal in 1924.
USMC Fortaleza Ozama 1922 restored.jpg
16 May 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes–Picot Agreement, a secret treaty between France and Britain on an eventual future partition of the Ottoman Empire in case of an Allied victory, is signed. The agreement includes plans to establish British- and French-controlled spheres of influence in the levant and in Mesopotamia, both via direct annexations and via client states. In 1917, the Soviet leadership would leak the terms of the agreement to the public, greatly tarnishing the reputation of the Allied powers.
Sykes Picot Agreement Map signed 8 May 1916.jpg
31 May 1916 Battle of Jutland At sea, the Battle of Jutland, the largest naval engagement in human history, ends in a tactical German victory due to Britain suffering catastrophic losses, but in a strategic British victory, as the British naval blockade remains in place, the German High Seas Fleet is so damaged that it will remain in port until the end of the war, and the German submarine fleet cannot be expanded as planned anymore as most shipyards are preoccupied with repairing the giant dreadnoughts. The battle further proves to the German right that Britain cannot be defeated with the fleet, but only with extensive & unlimited submarine trade war to strike them directly at their heart.
4 June 1916 Brusilov Offensive The Russians launch the Brusilov Offensive in an effort to reconquer the territories lost during the Great Retreat, especially Lemberg and Kovel, and support their French allies by exerting pressure on the Eastern Front, forcing Germany to divert forces from Verdun to the east. While very successful at first, the offensive doesn’t manage to either knock the Austro-Hungarians out of the war or drive Germany out of Russian Poland; instead, in the long-term, it only weakens the struggling Russians even further.
10 June 1916 Arab Revolt After the Young Turks find out about the Sharif of Mecca's secret ties to the British and his plan to start an armed uprising against Turkish rule, they publicly execute several leading Arab nationalists in Damascus to imitidate the old Sharif. This however leads to the immediate declaration of a general Arab revolt against the Ottomans: A deadly march of ten thousands of Arab warriors from the deserts of Hedjaz to the coast of Palestine begins over the course of the coming years.
Arab Revolt.jpg
1 July 1916 Battle of the Somme The British launch the Somme Offensive in Northeastern France to relieve their French allies and potentially give the Germans, who struggle at Verdun and in the East, the final blow. However, the battle ends indecisive and with high casualties on both sides. For the first time in history, tanks are used in military warfare.
Western front 1915-16.jpg
14 July 1916 Beginning of the Warlord Era In China, the National Protection War, which had been triggered by Republican-minded military officers from Southern China after President Yuan Shikai's proclamation of the Chinese Empire in December 1915, comes to an end: Yuan Shikai resigns and dies shortly after, but the powerful Beiyang Army in Beijing splits into multiple factions and is not able to guarantee a strong central government anymore - this marks the beginning of the Warlord Era in China.
25 July 1916 Russian Invasion of Eastern Anatolia The Russian advance into Anatolia, which has started in January under the lead of General Nikolai Yudenich culminates into the Battle of Erzincan: Russian forces manage to decisively defeat the approaching Ottoman forces and prevent a Turkish recapture of Trabzon, but after the battle, the Russians are so exhausted that the Anatolian Front remains stagnant until the October Revolution of 1917.
27 August 1916 Romanian Declaration of War Romania tries to profit from Austrian setbacks and joins the war on the side of the Allies, hoping to gain control over Transylvania. However, despite initial success, German assistance would lead to a quick collapse of Romania: A joint German-Austro-Hungarian-Bulgarian offensive would take most of Dobruja and Wallachia, with with Bucharest being taken by August von Mackensen within the year. The unexpected Romanian declaration of war would lead to the resignation and downfall of Erich von Falkenhayn and the further rise of Hindenburg and Ludendorff.
30 August 1916 National Defence coup d'état in Greece Throughout the year, multiple military engagements have taken place along the Macedonian Front, with several Greek cities falling under Bulgarian occupation, despite Greece still officially remaining a neutral country. The surrender of territory recently won with difficulty in the Second Balkan War of 1913 is the last straw for many army officers. With Allied assistance, a coup is launched in Salonica, and the former Prime Minister of Greece Eleftherios Venizelos is invited to be the leader of this so-called Provisional Government of National Defence. From this point, Greece has two governments: the "official" royal government at Athens, which maintains Greek neutrality, and the "revolutionary" Venizelist government at Salonica.
21 October 1916 Assassination of Karl von Stürgkh Karl von Stürgkh, Minister-President of Cisleithania since 1911 with de facto dictatorial authority since the begin of the war, is shot dead during lunch at a luxury hotel in Vienna by the social democrat Friedrich Adler. Adler is arrested and Stürgkh is succeeded by the liberal traditionalist Ernest von Koerber, who however continues the semi-absolutist course of his predecessor.
Adler-attentat schuss big.5530395.jpg
5 November 1916 Establishment of the Regency Kingdom of Poland Emperors Wilhelm II and Franz Joseph officially make a declaration in which they promise the creation of a "self-reliant" Polish Kingdom on the territory of the former Russian Congress Poland that will be closely tied to the Central Powers. For the first time since the Congress of Vienna the restoration of Poland is under legitimate consideration, which puts the anti-Polish Entente under great pressure. The declarataion is however attacked by both German rightist and liberal circles, who fear that a fait accompli in Poland could hamper future annexation plans or peace efforts with Russia.
Polish banknote from 1917 - 10 Marek Polskich.jpg
7 November 1916 1916 United States Presidential Election The 1916 United States presidential election takes place and incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson narrowly defeats former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Charles Evans Hughes, the Republican candidate. In the aftermath, Wilson continues the United States' non-interventionist course, cautiously supporting the German peace offensive later that year. His second inauguration takes place on 5th March 1917.
21 November 1916 Death of the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria dies aged 86 at Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, being with over 67 years at the helm of his Empire the second longest-reigning monarch in human history at the time of his death. He is succeeded by his grandnephew Karl, who would eventually steer the fragile monarchy onto a radically different political course.
1 December 1916 Noemvriana The so-called "National Schism" in Greece reaches a new stage in November, when forces of the Salonica Government begin to clash with Royalist troops in Thessaly. Following that, King Constantine cancels disarmament negotiations with the Allies, assuming that they are secretly backing the Venizelists. As a result, Allied forces occupy Athens, which leads to armed confrontations between French, British and Greek soldiers on the streets. The day after the Allied contingent evacuate from Athens, a royalist mob lynches alleged supporters of Venizelos on the streets. Soon after, the Allies impose a crippling naval blockade on Greece,
Noemvriana 2.png
6 December 1916 David Lloyd George becomes British Prime Minister The Liberal David Lloyd George, previously Secretary of State for War and one of the most fervent anti-German agitators since the beginning of the war, succeeds the disgraced H. H. Asquith as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Under Lloyd George, the government begins to take in a much more determined stance when it comes to the war effort, but his premiership would cause lasting damage to the Liberal Party which would never recover in the post-war elections.
David Lloyd George.jpg
12 December 1916 German peace offer to the Entente The government of Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, despite resistance from the military, makes an official peace offer to the Entente, hoping to win the backing of the neutrals, stoke pacifict sentiment in the Allied countries and boost morale at home. The peace offensive is reluctantly backed by the United States of America, however, the determined leadership of France, Britain and eventually also Russia rejects the offer.
17 December 1916 Kaocen Revolt Kaocen Ag Geda, the Amenokal of the Taureg Ikazkazan confederation, places the French garrison at Agadez in the Aïr Mountains of French Niger under siege with the help of Tagama, the Sultan of Agadez. They seize control of all the major towns in northern Niger for three months before finally being suppressed by a large French force dispatched from Zinder, and the colonial government begins large scale reprisals against rebel towns.
Taureg warriors.jpg


Date Event Description Picture
8 January 1917 Unrestricted Submarine Warfare is not relaunched At a conference at Pless Castle in Silesia, the Kaiser, persuaded by Reichskanzler Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg & Admirals Henning von Holtzendorff, Georg von Müller and Eduard von Capelle, chooses to continue submarine warfare in accordance with the prize law (re-launched in October '16) instead of deciding for unrestricted submarine warfare. This radicalizes the German far-right even further, who are of the opinion that the war can only be won with the most ruthless methods. This is the point where the Kaiserreich universe diverges from our own.
4 February 1917 Formation of the Raad van Vlaanderen Members of the activist faction of the Flemish movement in occupied Belgium, led by Pieter Tack and August Borms, form the Raad van Vlaandereen, or Council of Flanders. The occupying Germans give the movement their support as part of their strategy of Flamenpolitik, hoping to eventually create a federalized state separating the Flemish and Walloon populations. Following the end of the Weltkrieg, the Raad forms the basis of the new government of Flanders-Wallonia.
8 March 1917 February Revolution Faith in the autocratic Tsarist regime in Russia reaches an all-time low: After severe protests in Petrograd which culminate into the February Revolution, the country collapses into anarchy, with the Tsar abdicating on 15 March. A provisional government is formed under Georgy Lvov, who is succeeded by Minister of War Alexander Kerensky in July. Despite initial hopes in Berlin, the war against the Central Powers continues, just under a different leadership.
February revolution.jpg
6 April 1917 Split of the German SPD The Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), long plagued by internal squabbles, formally splits into the marxist USPD (Independent Social Democratic Party) under Hugo Haase and the revisionist, reformist MSPD (Majority Social Democratic Party) under Philipp Scheidemann & Friedrich Ebert. Fearing a radicalisation of the political left, Wilhelm II announces vague reforms to the Prussian three-class franchise & the House of Lords after the war in the form of the famous Easter Promise, but the franchise on which the new order is to be based is to be only ‘secret’ and ‘direct’, not ‘general’.
16 April 1917 Nivelle Offensive The Allied Spring Offensive of 1917 (Nivelle Offensive) is launched by the Allied Powers along the Aisne & in the Champagne. Well-planned, but badly-executed, the offensive turns into a strategic disaster, no breakthrough is achieved. Instead, the heavy French casualties at Chemin des Dames lead to mutinies, which are harshly cracked down on after Robert Nivelle is replaced as commander-in-chief by Philippe Pétain. This disaster discourages the French high command from continuing great offensives until the end of the year, giving Germany a chance to recover.
27 June 1917 Greek Declaration of War After King Constantine's abdication on 11th June due to the Allied blockade and severe Franco-British pressure, Venizelos and the Salonica Government take over the affairs of state in Athens and officially declare war on the Central Powers on the 27th of June. Constantine's second son Alexander succeeds his father to the throne of the Kingdom of Greece.
1 July 1917 Kerensky Offensive Russian Minister of War Alexander Kerensky launches one last desparate offensive to push back the Germans and advance into Galicia. However, the operation is ill-timed, badly planned and ends in a strategic disaster, as most Russian divisons have long been supplanted by Bolshevik elements and refuse to take up arms. The offensive leads to the eventual collapse of the Russian war machine and results in leftist violence on the streets of Petrograd.
9 July 1917 Manchu Restoration & Rise of Duan Qirui The short-lived Manchu Restoration throws the Chinese Beiyang Government into disarray; the subsequent crackdown on the monarchist putschists sees the eventual rise of Duan Qirui, a former associate of Yuan Shikai, whose complete disregard for the constitution soon leads to the establishment of a semi-democratic, Kuomintang-dominated counter-government in Guangzhou, which, led by Sun Yat-sen, challenges the legitimacy of the corrupt northern government: It is the beginning of the Constitutional Protection Movement.
13 July 1917 Resignation of Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg German Chancellor von Bethmann-Hollweg is forced to resign on pressure of Ludendorff & Hindenburg after he tries to introduce reforms to the Prussian three-class franchise and enters into negotiations with the Reichstag majority about yet another peace offensive. The great compromiser is forced to leave the ship of state and is replaced by the civil servant Georg Michaelis. It soon becomes clear that Michaelis is little more than a puppet of Hindenburg and Ludendorff.
Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg.jpg
19 July 1917 Reichstag Peace Resolution Shortly after Michaelis appointment, the IFA parliamentary coalition launches the long anticipated Reichstag Peace Resolution, calling for no annexations, no indemnities, freedom of the seas and international arbitration. Even though it is entirely ignored by the Allies, it also discredits Michaelis, who, in the eyes of the political right, hasn’t done enough to prevent this foreign political debacle
20 July 1917 Corfu Declaration The Serbian government-in-exile led by Prime Minister Nikola Pašić signs the so-called Corfu Declaration with the Yugoslav Committee, a group of anti-Habsburg Croats and Slovenes which strived for the unification of all South Slavic peoples into one "Yugoslav" state. The treaty lays the groundwork for the formation of a Yugoslav state in case of an Allied victory and the dissolution of the Habsburg Empire.
29 August 1917 Canadian Conscription Crisis The Conservative government of Canadian Prime Minister Robert Borden passes the Military Service Act, subjecting all adult males aged 20 to 45 to conscription for military service. Opposition to the act arises from farmers, trade unionists, pacifists, non-British immigrants, and most especially French Canadians, led by Québécois politician Henri Bourassa. The nation becomes sharply divided between English-speaking imperialists who support the overseas war effort and French-speaking nationalists who oppose conscription into what is, in their view, a foreign war.
Anti-conscription protest in Montreal.jpg
2 September 1917 Formation of the German Fatherland Party Alienated by the peace and reform efforts of the government, the growing influence of the Reichstag and the fact that the unrestricted submarine campaign still has not been relaunched, several influential German rightists, stretching from moderate national liberals to radical anti-Semitics, meet in Königsberg to form the German Fatherland Party (DVLP). The DVLP presents itself as a non-parliamentary organisation with the goal to unite the German people behind the war effort & block any attempts at negotiated peace, instead seeking maximum territorial war goals. The party is led by Alfred von Tirpitz, Wolfgang Kapp and Johann Albrecht von Mecklenburg.
Fatherland Party.jpg
24 October 1917 Battle of Caporetto In Italy, after more than two years of stalemate in the mountains, the Battle of Caporetto beats the Italians back to the Piave river, where only a last minute defense saves Venice from occupation. During the battle, the Germans and Austrians make effiecient use of poison gas and mass artillery fire. The Chief of Staff of the Italian Army, Luigi Cadorno, is dismissed after the disastrous battle.
7 November 1917 October Revolution & Start of the Russian Civil War In Petrograd, the Russian Provisional Government is overthrown by a Bolshevik armed insurrection. President Kerensky flees the city while most of the local garrisons and the navy at Kronstadt throw their support behind the revolutionaries. The Winter Palace is stormed and the government put under arrest; soon after, anti-Bolshevik forces rally all over the country, marking the begin of the Russian Civil War.
October 1917.jpg
8 November 1917 Ukrainian War of Independence The Kiev Bolshevik Uprising marks the beginning of the Ukrainian War of Independence. In this, Russian Republic forces in the city are ousted by a coup of a coalition of Bolsheviks and Nationalists. They established the Central Rada, which soon alienated the Bolsheviks. They established a rival Ukranian republic in the city of Kharkov, which allied itself with the Russian Bolsheviks. Due to this the Central Rada would come to relly on German aid. The various authorities in Ukraine fought against local forces, foreign invaders and eachs rival governments.
Ukrainian War of Independence.jpg
16 November 1917 Return of Georges Clemenceau After several changes in leadership throughout the year, which included the collapse of the Union Sacrée and the resignation of two Prime Ministers, the Independent Radical Georges Clemenceau becomes French Prime Minister for a second term. A determined anti-German leader just like David Lloyd George, his goal is to lead France out of its domestic crisis and focus all efforts on the war.
Le ministère Clemenceau - Le Journal - 17 nov. 1917.jpg
5 December 1917 Coup d'état in Portugal During a military coup in Lisbon under the lead of General Sidónio Pais, the Democratic Party of Portugal, which has been in power since the Portuguese revolution of 1910, is ousted and replaced by a military junta. Soon after, Pais becomes famous as the "President-King" for his dictatorial ruling style.
Sidónio Pais derrota Afonso Costa - 1918.png
5 December 1917 Ceasefire on the Eastern Front At Brest-Litovsk, a temporary ceasefire is signed by the Central Powers and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, which had campaigned with the slogan "Bread and Peace" in the aftermath of the October Revolution. Soon after, on 9th December, an armistice with the Romanians at Focșani follows, and on 15th and 18th December, official armistices between Russia and the Central Powers are signed at the Eastern Front and at the Anatolian Front. Soon after, peace negotiations at Brest-Litovsk begin.
6 December 1917 Finnish Declaration of Independence Following the Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia by the Bolshevik government a month earlier, the Senate of Pehr Evind Svinhufvud presents a Declaration of Independence to the Finnish Parliament that is subsequently adopted two days later. The Soviet government issues a decree twelve days later officially recognizing Finnish independence.
Finnish Declaration of Independence.jpg
9 December 1917 Surrender of Jerusalem After making steady progress both in the Levant and Mesopotamia (with Kut and Baghdad finally falling in spring 1917) despite initial difficulties, Jerusalem is reached by British and Arab forces in November and finally surrenders in early December. From there, a long march towards Syria and Anatolia begins the next year.
Detail of Allenby Entering Jerusalem.jpg
13 December 1917 Proclamation of the Crimean People's Republic

Proclamation of the Alash Autonomy

In opposition to the Bolshevik government, a Kurultai of Crimean Tatars declare the Crimean People’s Republic and elect Noman Çelebicihan as its first president. A “Crimean Tatar Basic Law” announces the convening of an All-Crimean Constituent Assembly, establishes a Board of Directors as a provisional government, and erects a Council of National Representatives as a provisional parliament.
The Second All-Kazakh Congress at Orenburg proclaims the Alash Autonomy with a provisional government under Alikhan Bukeikhanov.
Crimean People's Republic1.jpg


Date Event Description Picture
3 January 1918 January Strikes in Austria-Hungary & Germany As a result of food shortages and the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, over 700,000 Austro-Hungarian workers head to the streets in early January and demand peace. The movement soon spreads to Germany, where, from 25th January onwards, over a million workers follow their Austrian comrades suit. Workers' councils are established all over Central Europe; while the situation in Germany can be eventually calmed down due to the mediation of the SPD and because of the military treathening to intervene, but in Austria, parts of the armed forces join the revolutionaries, e.g. Croatian and Czech soldiers stationed in Judenburg, Pécs & Budapest as well as the sailors at the naval base in Cattaro.
Germany 1918 Ebert.jpg
12 January 1918 Japanese Intervention in Siberia When in late 1917 rumors become loud that the British are planning to intervene into the Russian Civil War in the Far East via their fleet in Hong Kong without consulting their Japanese allies first, Prime Minister of Japan Terauchi Masatake orders the Imperial Japanese Navy to reach Vladivostok before the arrival of the British. Over the course of the next three years, the Japanese establish a semi-colonial military regime in Primorye, cooperating with local warlords, bringing in 10,000s of settlers and selling land to the mighty zaibatsus.
Khabarovsk intervention.jpg
27 January 1918 Finnish Civil War Finnish communists attempt to overthrow the authority of the White government of Finland. The so-called "Reds" and the "Whites" battled for control of the country, with Germany and Soviet Russia giving support to either side. After three months of fighting and with German support, the White Guard crush the uprising. Thanks to Germanys important military aid the monarchist cause in Finland soon becomes a reality.
Finnish Civil War Violence.webp
21 February 1918 Kuban Ice March Anti-Bolshevik White Russian forces of the "Volunteer Army" under General Lavr Kornilov retreat south from Rostov across the frozen Kuban steppe from February to May. The famous "Ice March" campaign concludes with Kornilov narrowly escaping death from an artillery shell on his headquarters during the Battle of Yekaterinodar. The city's capture in March cements the Whites' control over the Kuban Cossack heartland.
24 February 1918 Estonian Declaration of Independence In the face of advancing German troops, the Salvation Committee of the Estonian Provincial Assembly, or Maapäev, issues the Estonian Declaration of Independence. The movement proves to be short-lived, however, as the Germans dissolve the newly-created state mere days later and arrest many prominent Estonian leaders. The remnants of the Maapäev are forced underground to organize Omakaitse paramilitary units in preparation for the eventual liberation of the country.
3 March 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk In early March, after a successful Operation Faustschlag, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is signed between the Germans and the Bolsheviks, freeing thousands of German and Austrian troops for other fronts. The Bolsheviks have to renounce all territorial claims in Finland, the Baltic states, most of Belarus, and Ukraine as well as in parts of the Caucasus.
Treaty of brest litovsk.jpg
4 March 1918 Beginning of the Allied North Russia intervention Fearing a German-Finnish attack on the town, the Murmansk Soviet requests the Allies for military support, a decision only begrudgingly accepted by Moscow. On 4 March, 170 British troops arrive via ship, marking the beginning of the Allied Intervention into the Russian Civil War. Soon after, similar foreign landings/troop movements occur in Arkhangelsk, Azerbaijan and Central Asia,
Allied North Russia intervention.webp
7 March 1918 Treaty of Berlin between Germany and Finland The treaty ended war between Finland and Germany, it succeeded in placing the eastern country in the German orbit, paving the way for future German intervention in Finnish affairs.
Von der Goltz 2.jpg
21 March 1918 Great Allied Spring Offensive

Viena Expedition

A great Allied spring offensive, called “Great Western Offensive”, is launched in mid-March. It is designed at breaking the German lines before their reinforcements arrive, but the Germans manage to repulse the offensive at great cost of life.
Allied Offensive.jpg
25 March 1918 Proclamation of the Belarusian People's Republic Following the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the Great Belarusian Rada adopts the Third Constituent Charter in Minsk, officially proclaiming the Belarusian People’s Republic as an independent state. As the German Empire refuses to grant official recognition to the new republic, the socialist Hramada that had dominated the Rada splits, with the Social-Democrats and Social-Federalists willing to work with the Germans to secure independence, and the Socialist-Revolutionaries turning to guerilla warfare against the German occupiers.
28 March 1918 Quebec Easter riots The Canadian Conscription Crisis reaches its apex during Easter weekend in Quebec City after Dominion police detain a French-Canadian man who had failed to present his draft exemption papers. The quickly-escalating riots along with rumors of a province-wide uprising prompt Quebec City Mayor Henri-Edgar Lavigueur to request reinforcements from Ottawa, and the Borden government invokes the War Measures Act of 1914 to deal with the unrest. On Easter Monday, armed soldiers from Ontario fire into a crowd of civilian protesters, leaving five dead and dozens more injured, as well as $300,000 in damages.
Quebec Conscription Crisis.jpg
12 April 1918 Sixtus Affair Kaiser Karl I, in view of Austria-Hungary's spiriling instability, decided to reach out to the Allies to see if an agreement could be reached for the signing of a separate peace. Due to the danger of the other Central Power's finding out he recruited Prince Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma who started negotiations with the French. After the Brest-Litovsk Treaty the Austrian Foreign Minister Count Ottokar von Czernin called on Georges Clemenceu as the main obstacle for finally concluding a 'fair peace'. Angered, Clemenceu published the Sixtus Note in the newspapers. Though Austria-Hungary claimed that it had no knowledge of this act, this embarassment forced the Empire to concede more of its independence to their German allies, making extremely dependant on the latter.
Sixtus Affair.jpg
29 April 1918 Skoropadsky Coup In the Ukraine, discontent with the corrupt and inefficient Republican government increases from day to day. The conservative agrarians feel alienated by the leftist reform agenda of the head of the Central Rada, Mykhailo Hrushevsky, and the Germans are unhappy that the Ukrainians are not able to supply them with the amounts of grain they have been promised in the cooperation treaty. Additionally, everything outside of Kyiv is practically free from government influence, which leads to Bolshevik agitation all over the country. In late April, all of this eventually culminates in the coup of former Tsarist military officer Pavlo Skoropadsky, which is indirectly supported by the German occupation forces.
Petr Skoropadsky i nemzy.jpg
7 May 1918 Treaty of Bucharest The Treaty of Bucharest is signed by the Central Powers and Romania, finally bringing the war on the Eastern Front to an end. Among the terms of the treaty are the cession of Cadrilater to Bulgaria and various Carpathian mountain passes to Hungary, the establishment of a Central Powers condominium in Northern Dobruja, the leasing of the Ploiești oil fields to Germany as well as the permission for the Central Powers to appoint civil servants which are allowed to veto every decision of the Romanian government, effectively turning Romania into a protectorate. However, Romania does not have to pay war indemnities and is allowed to incorporate the formerly Russian Bessarabia.
10 May 1918 Petsamo Expedition Around 100 Finnish civilian volunteers march northward with the aim to capture the Bolshevik-controlled Barents Sea port of Pechenga/Petsamo. On their way up, they are however attacked by a detachment of the British Navy and Red Army soldiers, who both fear that the Germans might soon follow suit and establish a Central Powers foothold in the far north. After brief fighting, the expedition has to return without ever reaching its destination.
Petsamo Expedition.jpg
14 May 1918 Revolt of the Czechoslovak Legion The Legion was formed by ethnic Czechs and Slovaks under the Russian Empire who fought for the liberation of their homelands from Austro-Hungarian rule. After the October Revolution the Legions was given passage to Vladivostok by the Bolshevik’s but soon tensions escalated to an outright revolt occupying the Trans-Siberian Railway in the regions of Volga, Ural and SIberia. The anti-communist ‘Whites’ were given an advantage because of this, giving them a chance to consolidate in Siberia.
4 June 1918 Treaty of Batum The Treaty of Batum is signed, vastly expanding Ottoman influence in the Caucasus.
Treaty of Batum.png
15 June 1918 Operation Teutoburg Operation Teutoburg is launched, attempting to kick Greece out of the war and drive out the Entente forces out of Albania & Saloniki. Instead of assaulting the Salonika stronghold head on, the Central Powers make extensive use of specialized storm-troopers and so called "infiltration" tactics. The defenders at Salonika are pinned down while the rest of the German-Bulgarian forces sweep through Greece. Athens falls on July 3rd, causing the Greek government to surrender. The western forces at Salonika are evacuated soon afterwards.
Operation Teutoburg.jpg
3 July 1918 Death of Sultan Mehmed V Mehmed V, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire since 1909, dies at Yıldız Palace in Constantinople at the age of 73. Throughout his reign, the Empire experienced the loss of the North African territories and the Dodecanese Islands, including Rhodes, in the Italo-Turkish War, the traumatic loss of almost all of the Empire's European territories west of Constantinople during the Balkan Wars and the rise of nationalist-reformist forces in the form of the Young Turks, who reduced Mehmed to nothing more than a powerless puppet after their coup in 1913. Mehmed is succeeded by his half-brother Vahideddin, who soon initiates a radically different political course than his predecessor.
Mehmed V of Ottoman Empire.jpg
6 July 1918 Left SR uprising In March the Left-SR's, the long-time allies of the Bolshevik's, left most important government positions because of their opposition to the Brest-Litvosk Treaty and later the land collectivization of the Bolshevik's. Soon, a prominent Left-SR leader, Maria Spiridonova, organized the assasination of the German Ambassador in order to restart the war. Following the assasination, thanks to the their control of the Cheka, they occupied various centers in Moscow and arrested many Bolsheviks, though their slow mobilization allowed the Latvian Riflemen to undo the possible coup. Notably during this failed coup Boris Savinkov's group assisted the Left-SR.
Left-SR Uprising.jpg
17 July 1918 Execution of the Romanov family When the forces of the white-aligned Czechoslovak Legion start to close in on the city of Yekaterinburg to secure the local section of the Transsiberian Railway, the Ural Regional Soviet decides to execute the royal family, interned at Ipatiev House since April, to take one of the counterrevolution's most important figureheads. Nicholas II of Russia, his wife Alexandra Feodorovna, their five children and four servants are shot and bayoneted to death. The bodies are taken to a nearby forest, where they are stripped, buried, and mutilated with grenades.
2 August 1918 Anti-Bolshevik Coup in Archangelsk
1918 Vancouver general strike
White Russian forces under Captain Georgi Chaplin launch a coup against the Soviet government in Arkhangelsk on the eve of the Allied occupation, assisted by British Major General Frederick Poole. Supported by Allied fleets from the White Sea,  Arkhangelsk becomes the Allied base of operations in Northern Russia for the duration of their intervention in the Russian Civil War.
Motivated by censorship of socialists, the low wages of workers and conscription; the catalyst came when a draft evader and labour activist called Albert "Ginger" Goodwin was killed on July 27th. It would take place for only one day and actually be the first general strike in Canadian history. The police reacted with violence and this only served to further create labour unrest - which would culminate in the Winnipeg General Strike the next year.
Anti-Bolshevik Coup in Archangelsk.jpg
1918 Vancouver General Strike.jpg
30 August 1918 British police strikes
Assassination of Vladimir Lenin
Strikes break out in the United Kingdom when members of the officially outlawed NUPPO (National Union of Police and Prison Officers) head to the streets to demand pay increases and other concessions. More than 12,000 policemen are on strike, shocking the war-torn society and the government alike. The Lloyd George administration eventually makes some minor concessions, but the NUPPO remains an illegal organisation. Smaller protests and strikes would continue throughout 1919, soon joined up by bakers and council tenants especially in Scotland.

Vladimir Lenin, the famous leader of the Russian Bolsheviks, is shot by Fanny Kaplan after a visit at a factory in Moscow following the Bolsheviks' suppression of the Left SRs. Badly wounded, he is immediately taken back to his living quarters at the Kremlin, but succumbs to his wounds two days later. Bolshevik spirits are seriously shaken as a crippling power struggle between Lenin's former second-in-commands breaks out.

Lenin attempt.jpg
9 September 1918 September Insurrections After an unsuccessful socialist uprising in Germany in September, the so-called Enabling Act is passed by the Reichstag in October. It grants Reichskanzler Georg von Hertling (and indirectly Erich Ludendorff) the ability to pass laws without a vote, and bans all socialist parties in the German Empire (excluding the SPD). It is the beginning of the Ludendorff Dictatorship.
September Insurrections Bremen.jpg
14 September 1918 Capture of Baku Forces of the Ottoman Empire and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic under the lead of Nuri Pasha capture the city of Baku, which has been under the control of the White- & Armenian-aligned, British-backed Centrocaspian Dictatorship since July. After seizing control of the city, up to 30,000 Armenian civilians are massacred by the invaders in several days as a retaliation for the massacre of Azerbaijanis by Bolsheviks and Armenians in spring 1918.
Soldiers of Islamic Army of Caucasus near Baku during battle for the city in 1918.jpg
21 September 1918 Battle of Megiddo Devastating defeats in Palestine after the Battle of Megiddo in September lead to a mass retreat of Ottoman forces northwards. Jerusalem, Damascus and Aleppo fall to the British, but due to the cunning of the commander of the Ottoman Seventh Army, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, the British led by General Edmund Allenby are halted at Maraş, an event later to be known as the "Miracle at Maraş".
5 October 1918 Reunion of Bulgaria and Macedonia The (re)union of Bulgaria and Macedonia is proclaimed on October 5th, 1918, on the ten year anniversary of the Tsardom, and on paper, Greater Bulgaria has been formed.
Greater Bulgaria map .jpg
October 1918 Retreat of British forces in the Middle East The Fall of Greece and the growing risk of revolution in the British Protectorate of Egypt, coupled with Allied setbacks would lead to most of Edmund Allenby's troop's in the Levant being redeployed from Syria to France. "The Bull" is forced to slowly retreat back to Palestine because of a lack of manpower. Allenby stops in in the positions he held prior to the Megiddo Offensive, called the Allenby Line, from where the Theatre turns into a war of attrition.
5 November 1918 United Baltic Duchy proclaimed The United Baltic Duchy is proclaimed in late 1918 through the merger of the Duchy of Courland & German-occupied Livonia & Estonia. Adolf Friedrich von Mecklenburg is elected as its monarch.
United Baltic Duchy Map.jpg
7 November 1918 Dismissal of the Young Turk Triumvirate With the Ottoman army losing on all fronts and tensions between Constantinople and Berlin continuously rising over influence in the Caucasus, over withheld grain deliveries from Ukraine and over leadership squabbles at the Palestinian Front between Turkish commanders and the German military mission, anti-Young Turk and, tied to that, anti-German sentiment sweeps through the Ottoman Empire. Sultan Mehmed VI, a determined opponent of the Young Turks, eventually decides to take action. In early November, Talaat Pasha is dismissed as Grand Vizier, soon followed by the Minister of the Navy Djemal Pasha and the Minister of War Enver Pasha. An attempted Young Turk coup in Constantinople shortly after collapses before it even starts: The authority of the Sultan is finally restored.
Three Pashas.jpg
14 November 1918 Estonian War of Independence The Estonian War of Independence begins in mid-November, but is suppressed by German forces and the newly-established Baltische Landeswehr under Rüdiger von der Goltz in early 1919. The Latvians are not able to jump on the bandwagon due to fractured leadership.
1920px-Soomusrong nr 2 Valgas 1919.jpg
18 November 1918 Kolchak Coup in Omsk After almost a month of negotiations between the anti-Bolshevik Constituent Assembly and Siberian governments, Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak reluctantly launches a British-backed coup to unite the fractious Whites. The situation is salvaged by the arrival of Boris Savinkov, who convinces Kolchak to accept many of the SR's demands, and limit his power to only supreme command over military affairs.
10 December 1918 Resignation of Georg von Hertling Reichskanzler Georg von Hertling resigns in December and is replaced with Paul von Hindenburg.
Georg von Hertling2.jpg


Date Event Description Picture
7 January 1919 Semana Trágica in Argentina After violent strikes at an English Argentine-owned plant in the suburbs of Buenos Aires break out, the capital of Argentina descends into chaos and violence, with police forces, soldiers and anarchist-aligned workers clashing on the streets. Additionally, anti-leftist ultranationalist paramilitary militias are formed, most prominently the Liga Patriótica Argentina of Manuel Carlés. During the confrontations, which also include bloody pogroms in the Jewish quarters of the city, over 600 people lose their lifes.
21 January 1919 Irish War of Independence An Irish Republic is proclaimed by the new Dáil Éireann and thus the Irish War of Independence begins in late January.
Irish War of Independence.jpg
2 March 1919 Great German Spring Offensive On March 2nd the Germans launch their Great Spring Offensive' at St. Mihiel, south of Verdun. Their infiltration tactics prove to be successful, with Nancy falling on the 16th. The French organize an ad hoc defense, leaving their flank exposed. An attack on Reims on the 26th splits the Allied forces in two, Amiens falls on the same day. A wedge is driven between the French and British armies and all pretense of joint-leadership ceases as both communications and supply lines are cut.
Great German Spring Offensive.jpg
11 March 1919 Last Austrian Offensive The Last Austrian Offensive is launched almost simultaneously on the 11th of March, attacking the Italian forces from Trento instead of the Piave. Vicenza and Verona fall on the 24th, pinning the Italians between two Austrian armies after Venice was reached on the 10th of April. A stalemate begins to set in along the Adige.
Last Austrian Offensive1.jpg
13 April 1919 Amritsar Massacre In Punjab, British India, hundreds of protestors were killed by British troops during the Amritsar Massacre. This proves to be a flashpoint for a widespread Indian revolt. With the British government still fighting against Germany, reinforcements are not forthcoming - Governor General Lord Chelmsford is forced to declare a state of emergency.
Amritsar Massacre.jpg
12 May 1919 Third Battle of the Marne In May, a small French counteroffensive at the Marne stops the German advance and stabilizes the front at some 50 kilometers off Paris. First short-distance artillery shots are fired on Paris. A short operational respite is given to Pétain as the Central Powers will now focus on the Italian front, the British prepare a fighting retreat from the northern coast.
Third Battle of the Marne.jpg
15 May 1919 1919 Winnipeg General Strike Low wages, rising cost of living, unstable employment and discrimination of immigrants motivated the somewhat radicalizing Trade Unions of Winnipeg, at the time Canada's 3rd largest city, to jointly call for a general strike; and around 30,000 workers joined it, making it the biggest strike in Canadian history. Oppositors to the strike began casting it as a revolutionary movement similar to the French, Italian and Russian Revolution. Soon local authorities took action against the strike, for example firing the police force who refused to pledge to no solidarity with the strikers and replacing them with special constables. This measures culminated in extreme violence by authorities, arrests of ringleaders and the end of the general strike in June.
1919 Winnipeg General Strike.jpg
7 June 1919 Sette Giugno Riots organized by Maltese nationalists on the small island are responded upon with repression by the British authorities. As a result support for pro-Italian irredentist and the colonial authorities grew.
Sette Giugno.jpg
20 June 1919 French Last Offensive The “Last Offensive” starts to try and push back the Germans from the Parisian region in the hope of getting a respectable peace. This yet another offensive is seen very badly by the soldiers, bucked up by the news of massive strikes and discouraged by their repetitive defeats. A miraculous counter-breakthrough performed by ad-hoc divisions of tanks and cavalrymen in the Oise region however deludes the French leadership into thinking that the offensive could reach the isolated British forces and see success.
French Last Offensive.jpg
28 June 1919 French Army Mutiny of 1919 The biggest mutinies the Republic has ever seen start in June, forcing a stop of the offensive, which ended in a bloody disaster. A general strike is initiated by the CGT in all of France in July, production comes to a halt and makes the continuation of the offensive near impossible.
French mutiny.jpg
June 1919 White Russian Volga Campaign The Southern White Russians begin their "Volga Campaign" with the capture of the city of Tsaritsyn. Led by General Pyotr Wrangel, the Whites swiftly seize Saratov, but are halted at Samara by Leon Trotsky. It takes until July for a Siberian White counter-offensive to force Trotsky to withdraw and surrender Samara, ultimately uniting the two largest White fronts.
Pyotr Wrangel 1919.webp
July 1919 Abyssinian Declaration of War As Italy begins to internally collapse, Empress Zewditu of Ethiopia and Sayyid al-Hasan of the Dervish State declare war on the fledgling nation, retaking Italy's colonies and reversing a European colonization of Africa for the first time.
5 August 1919 Armistice of Venice Italy, close to complete meltdown, decides to sign an armistice with the Central Powers on 5th August. The Austrians are allowed to garrison Lombardy and Venetia until a treaty is signed that would formally end the war. Following the armistice, republican and nationalist rebels rise up all over northern Italy, fighting against both the forces of the disintegrating Kingdom of Italy and the Austrian garrisons in the Italian Civil War. Central Italy falls to the rebels by November, which look to proceed into Rome and Abruzzo.
12 August 1919 Armistice of Chantilly After weeks of battle, strikes and mutineers and after taking notice of the Italian Revolution, the French, British and Belgians decide to sign an armistice as well on 12th August to prevent the situation from deteriorating even further. Coupled to the armistice is a 3 month ultimatum to fully end the war. If the ultimatum isn’t met, hostilities are bound to restart.
18 August 1919 Chinese Invasion of Mongolia Chinese forces of the Anhui Clique launch an invasion of the Bogd Khanate of Mongolia, which stands without a protector since Russia's collapse into civil war. It is a desperate decision of Duan Qirui, whose power position is in severe danger since the beginning of the year as negotiations between the Beiyang & Guangzhou Governments have started, to expand his influence northwards to have a place to retreat to in case he is ousted by his enemies. The invasion is secretly funded by the Japanese who hope to expand their influence into Central Asia via their puppet Duan.



Integration of the Provisional All-Russian Government The Southern and Siberian Whites meet in the recaptured city of Ufa to negotiate a union of their governments. It is ultimately decided that Aleksandr Kolchak will remain supreme military commander of all White Russian forces, with Sergey Sazonov acting as prime minister. Most importantly, however, the Siberian Whites agree to follow the example of the Southern Whites, and cut ties with the Entente. Petrograd falls shortly afterwards to Yudenich's troops, and he presents the city as a gift upon also ratifying his support for the new, unified Provisional All-Russian Government, also known as The Directory.
4 October 1919 Treaty of Wartholz The Treaty of Wartholz is signed between representatives of the Central Powers and the Kingdom of Serbia, which is reduced to an Austro-Hungarian puppet state in the aftermath. Macedonia and Nis are ceded to Bulgaria, Serbia is united with Montenegro as a compensation, but loses the coast, the army is limited to a meager number, heavy war reparations are imposed and a free-trade agreement with the Empire ensures Austrian economic dominance. The Karađorđević monarchy is begrudgingly kept, but is forced to appoint an Austrophilic government.
Militärgeneralgouvernement Serbien.webp


March on Petrograd In the Baltics, the White Russian Northwestern Army under General Nikolai Yudenich launches its offensive towards Red Petrograd. The outnumbered Reds are quickly forced to withdraw to Petrograd itself, and the Whites (with White Ruthenian and Baltic support) place the city under siege.
Petrograd 1919.jpg
5 November 1919 Republican Split in the Italian Civil War Unfortunately for their cause, the republicans would soon split into feuding "Red" and "White" factions, leading to yet more devastation and conflict in Northern Italy. Meanwhile, the Savoyard loyalists were driven out of Liguria by the Socialists and the Savoy-Aosta's fled to Sardinia, where they would remain for the next twenty years.
'Red' Italians.jpg
6 November 1919 Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles is officially signed between the representatives of the French, British, Portuguese, Belgian, Luxembourgish and German nations, ending the Weltkrieg after five long years. The Germans leave France and Belgium, except for the parts agreed to be occupied or annexed in the treaty. Japan refuses to sign the treaty, therefore the war officially continues in East Asia until the Tsingtao Accord of 1921.
Peaceconference Versailles.jpeg
10 November 1919 Caucasus Conference In Constantinople, the Caucasus Conference begins, held the aim to finally bring peace to the war-torn Caucasian Mountains. It leads to the partition of Armenia between the Ottoman Empire, Azerbaijan and Georgia, with the latter two falling under Germany's sphere of influence, which leads to a drastic deterioration of Turkish-German relations.
Caucasus November 1919.png
20 November 1919 Proclamation of the Revolutionary Commune of Paris News of the humiliating peace treaty initially lead to mass protests all over France; long-existing tensions begin to boil over, strikes and mutinies slowly turn into violent confrontations on the streets. Two weeks after the signing of the peace, Paris is in the firm hands of the revolutionary mob, and the government temporarily retreats to Versailles. It is the beginning of the French Civil War, which slowly begins to escalate further and further as more and more cities get taken over by revolutionaries and throw their support behind the Paris Commune.
13 December 1919 1919 United Kingdom general election Disgraced by the United Kingdom's failure to gain any concessions after five years of war in the Peace with Honor, the senior party in the wartime grand coalition is blamed. The Liberal Party loses 90 seats and the Conservatives gain a majority in the House of Commons. Andrew Bonar Law becomes Prime Minister.
Bonar Law.jpg


Date Event Description Picture
1 January 1920 Wilhelm Karl von Urach is crowned King of Lithuania A Wurttemberger Prince, Wilhelm Karl von Urach, is officially crowned King of Lithuania, surprising the audience by delivering his speech in Lithuanian. The Kingdom of Lithuania was officially born and the new king was given the prerogative to appoint an interim government: he favored a coalition of the Christian Democrats, the liberal Santara party, and smaller agrarian parties led by Baron Stasys Šilingas. .
Wilhelm Karl von Urach.jpg
22 January 1920 Bolshevik surrender to the 'Whites' Though Moscow had been under siege from a combined army of Whites since November of 1919, it takes until January 22nd, 1920 for the Bolsheviks to finally submit a formal surrender. Outnumbered, outgunned, and crippled by starvation and desertion, the Reds have little choice but throw themselves at the mercy of the Provisional Government. The Whites stand victorious at the formal conclusion of the civil war.
White Moscow.jpg
10 April 1920 Signing of the Jerusalem Accords In the summer, the Jerusalem Accords are reached between the Ottoman Empire and the British, who still occupy parts of Palestine and lower Iraq. Two autonomous regions are established, the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem in Palestine, stretching from the Allenby line to the Red Sea, and an autonomous region for the Assyrians in the Vilayet of Basra. The Mutasarrifate is to be governed by an International Council consisting of the German Empire, British Empire, Austrian Empire, United States of America and the Ottomans themselves. Forbidding the entry of Ottoman troops into the region, an international gendarmerie force would maintain the peace within Palestine. The British hope to maintain their influence in the Middle East via those two autonomous territories.
MoJ Map.jpg
11 April 1920 Evacuation of the French government to Algiers With the revolution having spread almost over all of the country, the French government, parliament and high command, despite the reluctance of the commander of the Grand Quartier Général, Philippe Pétain, decide to temporarily retreat to Algiers in French Algeria to reorganize.
11 May 1920 Treaty of Minsk The White Russians send a delegation of Aleksandr Kolchak, Sergei Sazonov, and Alexander Kerensky to ratify a modified version of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, despite furious protestations from nearly all elements of Russian society. With the nascent Russian Republic in almost as poor shape as the Bolsheviks had been in 1918, the Russians have little choice but agree to German demands, lest they face "punitive action" by the Kaiser's armies.
Treaty of Minsk.jpg
14 May 1920 Haute-Savoie Crisis Pursuant to a clause in the 1815 Treaty of Paris, Switzerland occupies Haute-Savoie during the closing stages of the French Civil War, which causes a major political crisis between Switzerland and the Commune, which is soon after settled by Germany.
Swiss Army Haute Savoie.jpg
21 June 1920 End of the Arab Revolt With the end of the Weltkrieg in the Middle East the Sharifian Army was left ally-less. The Ottomans push further south into Hejaz with fresh forces and capture the holy city of Mecca. The rebellious Hashemites are crushed by Mustafa Kemal Pasha and Ali Haidar Pasha is instated as the new Sharif. The region would be plagued by minor skirmishes for the next few years, but Ottoman rule was consolidated once again.
5 July 1920 Miracle of the Po The Italian Civil War reaches its de facto end, as Austrian and Republican forces cut off the Socialist attackers in the "Miracle at the Po" by destroying several bridges over the river with air and artillery strikes. Wary of starting a full scale war with Austria, and with most of its territory devastated by conflict, the SRI quits its offensives - an armistice is signed on 20 July.
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14 July/24 July 1920 Zhili–Anhui War Following increasing tensions between the ruling Anhui Clique, their Zhili subordinates and other cliques an Anti-Anhui alliance was organized after the (Anhui) Beiyang Government invaded Outer Mongolia. Slightly more than a week of fighting led to the unexpected defeat of the Anhui clique and the permanent breakup of the Beiyang Army. Wu Peifu was nationally credited as the strategist behind the Zhili clique's victory, while the Fengtian clique provided token support and were allowed to form a joint government.
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August 1920 1920 Olympics The Games of the VII Olympiad take place in Cleveland, Ohio (United States of America). While no expense has been spared, the games end in a disappointment due to relative low attendance as half of Europe finds itself stuck in post-war domestic unrest or outright civil war.
1920 Olympics.jpg
August 1920 Start of worker's strikes in Patagonia, Argentina. Dropping wool prices lead to an economic crisis in Southern Argentina, provoking general strikes in the Chubut and Santa Cruz Provinces which is quickly led by anarcho-syndicalist and other radical socialist groups. The government responds with some represssion.
Patagonia Rebelde.jpg
4 October 1920 Treaty of Trieste The "White" republicans sign the Treaty of Trieste on 4 October and join an Italian Federation as part of their deal with Austria, leading to the formal (re)establishment of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Papal State, the Republic of Lombardy-Venetia and the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont (the latter as a rump state). The Prime Minister of Lombardy-Venetia would become the Interim Head of the Council of the Federation. The treaty finally resolves the Italian question after months of civil war, unrest and political uncertainty on the Italian peninsula and their former colonies.
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2 November 1920 1920 United States presidential election The Democratic candidate, Secretary of the Treasury William G. McAdoo, is elected the 29th President of the United States, with the infamous anti-socialist Alexander Palmer as his Vice-President.
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November 1920 Start of the Patagonian general strike (Patagonia Rebelde) A general strike breaks out in a remote and rural region of Agrentina, called Patagonia, in response to low wages and poor conditions among sheep farm laborers. Though soon socialist groups, mostly composed of european immigrants (i.e. Spanish, Russsians), start influencing the strike to take more radical positions.
Patagonian General Strike.jpg


Date Event Description Picture
January 1921 Start of the Rif War Since the 1912 Treaty of Fez the Spanish had claimed new possessions in northern Morocco. In 1920 the Spanish generals decided to conquer the eastern territory, though they encountered stern resistance. General Fernández Silvestre, known for his boldness, marched his forces deep into the Rif mountains hoping to reach Alhucemas Bay. Abd el-Krim, one leader of a local tribe who had big ambitions for the Rif region, sent Fernández Silvestre a letter warning him not to cross the Amekran river, which would be considered an act of war. The Spanish general nonetheless crosses and so started the 'Rif War'.
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4 February 1921 Independence of Mongolia When Kolchak's forces were taking heavy losses from the Red Army, Baron Roman von Ungern-Sternberg saw this as an opportunity in Mongolia. Ungern-Sternberg moved with his forces into Mongolia across the northern border in October 1920, with the intent of restoring the Bogd Khaan to power. Ungern-Sternberg's 'Wild' Asiatic Cavalry Division in Siberia then take the Mongolian capital of Urga, and in March, Mongolia is proclaimed independent, ruled by the Bogd Khaan with Ungern-Sternberg as 'regent'.
Baron Roman Ungern-Sternberg takes Urga.jpg
21 February 1921 Coto War Costa Rica attacked a town within Panama, this culminated in a border conflict which would see Panama loose the territory of Coto purely on US pressure, who feared that the war might endanger the US banana companies in the area.
Coto War.jpg
8 March 1921 Assassination of Eduardo Dato While on the way home in his official car, Spanish Prime Minister Eduardo Dato is shot by three anarchist gunmen on a sidecar motorcycle at the Plaza de la Independencia. The shooting of Dato is already the third high profile assassination in Spain (after Antonio Cánovas del Castillo in 1897 and José Canalejas in 1912) within less than 25 years and reveals the deeps cracks in the foundation of both the Spanish political system and the Spanish Conservative Party.
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April 1921 Aleksandar II establishes a Royal Dictatorship in Serbia Faced with overwhelming disorder, ten days before the elections, Alexander II overruled the Prime Minister and released a second Obznana: which he delayed elections by a yet another year, prorogued parliament, and suspended the Constitution. Though it offers initial stabilisation, it only worsens the situation in the long term, and the mood turns against the monarchy.
Alexander II of Serbia.jpg
18 June 1921 Assasination of Portuguese President Sidonio Pais Following heavy unrest against his rule, Sidonio Pais, "President-King" of Portugal, is assassinated in Lisbon, which marks the beginning of the end of the Portuguese Republic.
Assasination of Sidonio Pais.jpg
22 July 1921 Battle of Annual Poorly-led, poorly-equipped, and divided both geographically and politically, the Spanish army was annihilated at the Battle of Annual by the Rif rebels under Abd el-Krim. The response in Spain was immediate, with riots breaking out in the streets and parliament alike, once again demanding an investigation not only into the Spanish government and army’s role in the “disaster of Annual”, but also for King Alfonso himself, who was said to have replied that “chicken meat is cheap” when informed of the battle’s outcome, before returning to a game of golf.
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25 August 1921 Mingo War In the aftermath of the Matewan Massacre and the murder of Sheriff Sid Hatfield, 10,000 UMW coal miners in Mingo County, West Virginia, begin a guerrilla war against their employers. Against the advice of Mary "Mother" Jones, the strikers march on neighboring anti-union stronghold Logan County over a peak called Blair Mountain. The Battle of Blair Mountain ends in a union victory, and nearby AFL and IWW members travel to the region to support the uprising. President McAdoo, on the advice of Vice-President Palmer, orders the Army in. Brigadier General William Mitchell, a proponent of close air support, works with Sheriff Don Chaffin of Logan to drop explosives and tear gas on the town. After diplomatic overtures by Bill Blizzard and the other leaders of the uprising fail, morale collapses and the miners surrender, although most hide their weaponry in caches rather than turn them in. General Mitchell's promises of amnesty prove to be hollow – and Blizzard, Jones, and many others are tried and executed.
Union Miners during Battle of Blair Mountain.jpg
12 September 1921 Death of Franklin Delano Roosevelt The promising political career of the young Democratic politician Franklin Roosevelt, previously Assistant Secretary of the Navy, is tragically cut short when he succumbs to poliomyelitis at age 39.
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2 October 1921 Death of King Wilhelm II of Württemberg King Wilhelm II of Württemberg, a Lutheran-majority kingdom in Germany, dies at the age of seventy-three, having reigned just shy of twenty-five years. As he died without a male heir, the headship of the house devolves to Albrecht von Württemberg, head of the Roman Catholic cadet branch of the dynasty.
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6 October 1921 Second China Consortium To promote peaceful collaboration between Great Powers in Asia and aid the economic development of China, the lapsed Six-Power Consortium (Republic of China, Japan, Germany, Britain, Russia and the USA) is re-negotiated, which monopolizes loans and investment to the Chinese central government.
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18 October 1921 Death of King Ludwig III of Bavaria King Ludwig III of Bavaria dies at the age of seventy-six, having reigned over Bavaria for just under eight years. He is succeeded by his son Crown Prince Rupprecht, a celebrated war hero and a firm supporter of Bavarian particularism in the Bundesrat to challenge Prussian hegemony within the Empire.
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November 1921 The proclamation of the Patagonian Worker's Front After confrontations between Argentinian government troops and strikers at Estancia La Anita in November, the strikes in Patagonia escalate into an outright rebellion and the Patagonian Worker's Front is proclaimed by Antonio Soto. With secret Chilean support and French supplies, the revolt succeeds after a few months of fighting in early 1922 after the government withdraws reluctantly, although the conflict remains stuck into an eternal stalemate along the Rio Negro.
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6 November 1921 Signing of the Tsingtao Accord With the Tsingtao Accord, the state of war between Germany & Japan, which had not been resolved with the Peace with Honour, is finally ended.
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10 November 1921 Signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty is signed on November 10 after three years of war and leads to the creation of an independent, Irish Republic associated with but not part of the Commonwealth, a solution presented by Eamon De Valera as 'External Association'. Northern Ireland however remains a part of the United Kingdom, and various ports are retained by the Royal Navy.
Anglo Irish Treaty.jpg


Date Event Description Picture
5 January 1922 Restoration of the monarchy in Portugal In Portugal, following political instability, the monarchy is restored after a coup led by Mitchell de Paiva Couceiro. The reason for this is to create unity and leave the broken Republican system which had brought great strife in the last 6 months.
Restoration of the monarchy in Portugal.jpg
10 March 1922 Rand Rebellion In South Africa, the decrease of wages due to the devaluing of gold and the weakening of the colour bar to enable the promotion of racially cheapened black miners to skilled and supervisory positions caused backlash among white workers. A strike was organized to protest this in December of 1921. Soon the white workers armed themselves, in response authorities oppressed the strikers who began rebelling only to be harshly put down by the government of Prime Minister Smuts. This action impacted the popularity of the Prime Minister.
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10 April 1922 Begin of the First Zhili-Fengtian War After jointly seizing Beijing in 1920, the Fengtian and Zhili Cliques control the de jure government of China in an uneasy coalition, and tensions soon begin to build. In April, a full blown conflict arises between Zhili and Fengtian cliques for the full control over Beijing. The war leads to the defeat of the Fengtian Clique and the fall of its leader, Zhang Zuolin, from the coalition Zhili-Fengtian government in Beijing. Wu Peifu is credited as the strategist behind the Zhili's victory and becomes more and more powerful.
First Zhili-Fengtian War.jpg
(summer 1922) The Indian "Red Summer" During the "Red Summer of 1922", Indian socialist rebels execute the Maharajah of Travancore along with most of his family. Palaces are ransacked and lands taken forcibly from the wealthy.
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Consolidation of South Africa Act South Rhodesia joins the Union of South Africa in order to consolidate resources. The purpose of this is deter the encroaching German economic influence in the region and protect British interests.


Date Event Description Picture
19 March 1923 Tripolitanian Intervention After Fezzani tribes rise up in the Ottoman Tripolitania Vilayet due to the controversial appointment of a new governor and conflict between two tribes over the distribution of cattle, the Ottoman army under the order of Minister of War Mustafa Kemal Pasha decides for a direct intervention in Tripolitania, suppressing the revolt violently and establishing extensive Ottoman garrisons in the urban centers to prevent further trouble.
16 July 1923 End of the Ludendorff Dictatorship After being linked to a mass embezzlement of public funds, Ludendorff is removed from his post, ending his de facto dictatorship in Germany. Reichskanzler Hindenburg, essentially a puppet of Ludendorff, is forced to resign as well and replaced with Grand Admiral von Tirpitz, beginning the golden age of Germany.
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4 August 1923 1923 United Kingdom general elections Terminally ill with throat cancer, Andrew Bonar Law resigns and a general election is called. The Conservative Party loses its majority but maintains a plurality. A coalition between the second and third largest parties, Labour and Liberal respectively, is formed with Ramsay MacDonald as Prime Minister.
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13 September 1923 Coup d'état of Miguel Primo de Rivera In After the assassination of Prime Minister Eduardo Dato e Iradier; the new government quickly alienated military circles by refusing to commit further resources and spending to the Rif War in the fact of constant defeats at the hands of Abd el-Krim's forces. This alienation and discontent was to culminate in a coup d'état led by General Miguel Primo de Rivera, taking full advantage of military opposition to García-Prieto's administration. Rivera marched on Madrid, swaying the local garrison to his cause, quickly taking control of the city.  A manifesto was quickly issued to the people of Spain. Alfonso XIII quickly made Rivera his Prime Minister, who set out to undermine the liberal parliamentary monarchy in order to establish an authoritarian monarchical order.
Miguel Primo de Rivera 1923.jpg
31 October 1923 Melbourne Riots When the Victoria Police Strike leads to a a week of rioting and military intervention to quash what is inaccurately described as "the Melbourne Commune", the Emergency Protocols are implemented.
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Date Event Description Picture
1 February 1924 1924 United Kingdom general elections Following the withdrawal of the Liberal Party from the government, the British general election gives the Conservatives a narrow majority. Forming a coalition with the breakaway National Labour Party and the Liberal Party, Austen Chamberlain becomes Prime Minister.
Austen Chamberlain.jpg
18 May 1924 HMS Hood Incident After the introduction of an austerity budget in the highly indebted United Kingdom in May that drastically reduces salaries in all branches of the armed forces, mutinies break out at Devonport in Plymouth following the return of the battlecruiser HMS Hood. Soon after, demonstrations have spread over most of the city, which only further deteriorate after the intervention of the Royal Marines and the police; police brutality and violence on the streets become a common sight. As a reaction, solidarity wildcat strikes are organized all over the country, which would slowly increase in radicality throughout the summer, with 3.5 million workers being on strike by September.
HMS Hood.jpg
11 June 1924 Albanian June Revolution Various Albanian nationalists, which included Avni Rrustemi and Ahmet Zogu amongst them, able to successfully dethrone Wilhelm zu Wied and rid the nation of Austrian influence. The success of the revolution was heavily dependent upon turbulent Austro-Hungarian internal reforms during the time, which left them unable to enforce their will within the Balkans. Following their victory a parliamentary democracy was established.
Albanian June Revolution.jpg
5 July 1924 1924 Olympics The 1924 Olympics take place in the German Empire (Winter Olympics in Oberhof, Summer Olympics in Berlin). They turn out as a huge success, even though the Commune of France declines to participate for ideological reasons, and the IOC decides to establish the Winter Olympics as a permanent event held every four years & independently organized from the Summer Olympics.
16 August 1924 Start of the Burmese War of Independence In British India, fearing the spread of revolutionary activity in Burma, local authorities begin to employ violent methods to sever cooperation between the Burmese nationalists and the Indian Revolutionaries. The assassination of Burmese national hero U Ottama by British authorities leads to the mobilization of local nationalist militias, starting the Burmese War of Independence.
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15 September 1924 Begin of the Second Zhili–Fengtian War The Beiyang Government, under the control of Premier Cao Kun and Marshal Wu Peifu of the Zhili Clique, controled most of China, with an exception being Shangai. Qi Xieyuan, a local Zhili Clique general, depanded the city and when rebuffed he attacked. Dr. Sun Yat-Sen and the Fengtian Clique decided to oppose this move militarily in order to safeguard the neutrality of Shangai.
Second Zhili–Fengtian War.jpg
1 October 1924 Start of the British Revolution Following a violent crackdown on sailor protests in Devonport in May, the Transport and General Workers' Union announces a solidarity strike. The British government outlaws the union in response, causing the Trade Union Congress to declare a general strike that escalates into an uprising; the British Revolution officially begins.
23 October 1924 Beijing Coup During the 2nd Zhili-Fengtian War, Feng Yuxiang breaks from the Zhili Clique, seizes the capital of Beijing, and forms his own "Guominjun" (National People's Army) faction. Premier of the National Assembly, Cao Kun, is placed under house-arrest. Upon receiving news of the coup, Fengtian commanders use this opportunity to launch a major offensive, leading to the near-collapse of Wu Peifu's Northern Zhili Clique. Feng Yuxiang's Guominjun, Zhang Zuolin's Fengtian Clique, and the remnants of Duan Qirui's Anuhi Clique form a tenuous new government.
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Creation of the Australasian Confederation The Consolidation of Resources Act merges Australia and New Zealand into the Australasian Confederation, this action is taken to consolidate the resources in Oceania as a response to the chaos engulfing the Empire. Elections are suspended and much of the new Dominion is put under martial law.
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4 November 1924 1924 US Presidential election In the United States, President McAdoo is reelected on the Democratic ticket, winning a narrow victory against his Republican opponent.
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Date Event Description Picture
4 January 1925 Burmese Declaration of Independence

Declaration of the Free Commune of Gibraltar

Burmese nationalists proclaim Burma to be independent, stating that they no longer recognise the authority of the British Raj and the United Kingdom, severing all ties to the British Crown.

After hearing news of the revolution in Britain, Spanish port workers in Gibraltar, later joined by members of the local British garrison that also have been subject to crippling wage cuts ever since the introduction of the austerity budget in May 1924, declare the Rock to be a "Commune of the Free Coal Haulers and Shipyard Workers". Their triumph is short-lived, however, as the Commune is crushed and occupied by a Spanish expedition in late January, which causes a major international crisis and can be counted as the first precedent of the British colonial scramble that would set in later that year in full swing.

20 February 1925 Proclamation of the Union of Britain In Liverpool, delegates from Labour meet along with dissident National Labour followers and Liberals who are now backing the rebellion, issuing the Liverpool Manifesto, which declares the Union of Britain as a federal republic. It lays out the number of federal regions to be established and also the territorial claims of the country, with the status of Northern Ireland left open. George Lansbury is chosen as President, A.J. Cook is elected as chairman and John Wheatley as his Deputy Chairman respectively.
12 March 1925 Dr. Sun Yat-sen dies of cancer Sun Yat-sen dies of cancer, setting off a power struggle in the Kuomintang (KMT). Eventually, Wang Jingwei of the left faction assumes the position of Generalissimo and Chiang Kai-shek of the rightists becomes commander of the KMT's military.
20 April 1925 Wall Street Crash of 1925 As a result of the British Revolution and the close-collapse of the British Empire, the New York Stock Exchange takes its largest recorded plunge on 20th April. The Roaring Twenties come to a roaring halt and the United States enter the Great Depression, soon followed by many other countries around the globe.
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30 May 1925
19 June 1925
May Thirtieth Movement
Canton-Hong Kong Strike
In response to the massacre of Chinese protesters inside the Shangai International Settlement by the municipal police major anti-British and anti-foreigner strikes were organized. The incident shocked and galvanized China, and the strikes, coupled with further violent demonstrations and riots, quickly spread across the country, bringing foreign economic interests to a near standstill.
Prominent Chinese citizens then called for a boycott. When it took effect the economy was paralysed and Hong Kong's total trade fell by 50%, shipping diminished by 40%, rents decreased by 60%, which lasted until the end of the boycott. The British had to give a loan Hong Kong to stave off collapse.
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23 June 1925 Establishment of the West Indies Federation After increased unrest in the British Caribbean possessions as a reaction to the revolution on the Home Islands, the Ottawa administration decides that direct rule over the colonies is not feasible anymore. The West Indies Autonomy Act is signed in late June, giving the British West Indies official autonomy within the empire equal to the likes of Australasia. France, in a deep political crisis at the time, would eventually sign an agreement with Canada in May 1926 that would put the chaos-plagued French West Indies under the authority of the federation as well.
27 July 1925 Begin of the Shanghai Scramble The retreat of the United Kingdom's East China Station to Australia leaves their Chinese possessions undefended. A request by Governor Claud Severn of Hong Kong for German protection leads to the so-called Shanghai Scramble, where the foreign powers in the region, particularly Germany and Japan, begin a series of standoffs over the remaining concessions.
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Collapse of the British Empire The collapse of the British government leads to a massive land-grab for its overseas possessions. Gibraltar finally falls into Spanish hands after the Rock declares itself a "Free Commune", the French Republic occupies Malta for safe-keeping, Argentina quickly seizes the Falkland Islands, Egypt gains sole authority over the Sudan, and the Ottoman Empire regains control over Cyprus, the Vilayet of Basra, the Trucial States, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and the Aden Protectorate, placing the latter under Yemeni jurisdiction. Germany manages to secure most of the British African holdings as well as the strategic colonies of St Helena and Ascension Island, the Strait Colonies, Brunei, Sarawak, and multiple Pacific islands. The geopolitical fallout leads to various disputed claims to this day.
Independence of Somalia The façade of a protectorate Britain claimed in Somalia collapses, and Sultan Mohamoud formally proclaims Somali independence. The British take no immediate action in response.
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South Africa manages to secure the Bechuanaland Protectorate To protect the holdings of the Empire from further German 'invasion' the Dominion of South Africa procures an Expeditionary Force. South Africa manages to secure the Bechuanaland Protectorate, peraphs saving it from German control.
South Africa manages to secure the Bechuanaland Protectorate.jpg
15 November 1925 Second Nyasaland Ultimatum Germany sent a warning to Lisbon to immediately vacate the the German-occupied British territory. The warning however was ignored, and therefore Germany would present Portugal with the Second Ultimatum, stipulating that the “The British colonies were to be divided along the Zambezi river, from the Caprivi-Strip to the Indian Ocean.” Given a week to comply before war would be declared, Portugal quickly realised that the Entente would not be able to support their claims in Africa. After 4 days, Prime Minister Paiva Couceiro would reluctantly accept the ultimatum, withdrawing the Portuguese troops back to Mozambique. The Second Ultimatum would prove to be a humiliating loss of prestige, though it wouldn’t prove to be the end of the monarchy like many feared.
Second Nyasaland Ultimatum.jpg
22 November 1925 The Anti-Fengtian War Begins Following the 2nd Zhili-Fengtian War the Beiyang Government was ruled by Fengtian Clique's Zhang Zuolin, the Guominjun's Feng Yuxiang and the Anhui Clique's Duan Qirui, who became the head of state though he was a mere figurehead. The Guominjun quickly came to head with Fengtian, who asked the help of the Zhili Clique. The conflict led to defeat of the Guominjun in April 1926.
Anti-Fengtian War1.jpg
26 November 1925 Death of King Rama VI of Siam Ascending to the throne in 1910, Rama VI helped strengthen Siam's national identity, creating the nation's first university and introducing a new flag. he also directed his efforts towards developing the Siamese economy. However, the most significant event of his rule occurred when Siam joined the Central Powers toward ending in the partition of French Indochina between Germany and the Asian kingdom. he is succeeded by his brother Prajadhipok, as Rama VII.
Royal Funerary of Rama VI.jpg
4 December 1925 Proclamation of the Serbian Republic Inspired by the British Revolution and fueled by rising bread prices, mass protests break out in Belgrade against the Royal Dictatorship of King Alexander II in late November. When the situation deteriorates and soldiers' mutinies occur after sending in the army, King Alexander II is requested to return from his winter residence in in Rijeka Crnojevića back to Belgrade. On the evening of his arrival, he is shot dead in a cloak-and-dagger operation, presumably by his own royal guards with alleged ties to a far-right secret organisation known as the Konspiracija. In the aftermath, chaos breaks out in Serbia; on the following day, the Serbian Republic is proclaimed by Ljubomir Stojanović, while the rest of the royal family eventually flees to Canada.
Protest u Beogradu.jpg
8 December 1925 Communard Raid on Plymouth Frantic negotiations with France secured an agreement and in absolute secrecy the French aided the Republican Army in launching a proto-commando raid on Southampton on December 8 while the French navy raided Plymouth. Dozens of ships were sunk in the harbour, mostly civilian vessels. What remained of the British government was unsure of the situation but was nevertheless terrified by the prospect of their flank being turned by an unexpected French invasion or mutinous naval units. Forces were scrambled southward and the weakening of the battle lines allowed a planned offensive by the Syndicalists.
Raid on Plymouth.jpg
20 December 1925 Evacuation of the British government to Canada With syndicalist militias approaching London, the remnants of the beleaguered British government flees to Canada, ensuring victory for the Union of Britain. Hundred thousands of fearful British citizens already had fled the country to Norway, Ireland, Germany, the Netherlands or the British dominions throughout the summer; the royal family already evacuated the country in late 1924.
British Question in the Americas Venezuela protests its claims in Guyana to the United States yet again. The United States refuses to reconsider its 1895 decision, but Venezuela takes no direct action. Nationalist, authoritarian Guatemala, however, sends in its troops to occupy British Honduras before reinforcements can arrive.
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Australasia occupies British possesions in the Pacific Australasia keeps control over the British parts of New Guinea, Fiji and other British-controlled islands.


Date Event Description Picture
15 January 1926 Annexation of Northern Ireland into the Irish Republic Northern Ireland, now the last remaining outpost of the United Kingdom in the British Isles and under the severe threat of a syndicalist invasion as well as plagued by domestic unrest, voluntarily joins the Irish Republic with guarantees of the Ulster Privileges: Among other concessions, Ulster enjoys a high degree of autonomy, proper parliamentary representation and an own minister post in the government.
28 January 1926 Italian War Scare Crisis Emboldened by the recent success of the British Revolution, the Socialist Republic of Italy mobilizes with the goal of pushing south into the Mezzogiorno. Austria-Hungary, facing social unrest, structural problems within its military and fiscal difficulties at the time, retreats its troops from southern Italy rather than risk entanglement in an Italian War. This angers the government in Naples, which officially withdraws from the Austrian-aligned Italian Federation, soon after followed by Sardinia and the Papal States. However, fearing German intervention and the outbreak of a new global conflict, Paris and especially London refuse to support Torino, and it decides to demobilize eventually.
4 February 1926 French Occupation of British Malta, Sierra Leone & Gambia As a consequence of the close collapse of the British Empire and German intiative to occupy British colonies for 'protection' the French Republic, on the request of their British allies, occupy strategic territories which the British cannot safely protect due to their continued worldwide crisis.
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2 May 1926 Civil War in Nicaragua Following the departure of US marines who had occupied Nicaragua since 1912, former president Emiliano Chamarro Vargas launches a coup against democratically-elected president Carlos José Solórzano. The situation quickly deteriorates into open civil war and the United States is forced to intervene again, installing US ally Adolfo Díaz as president. Vice President Juan Bautista Sacasa proclaims a rival government with support from Mexico and marches on the capital, defeating Vargas’s partisans along the way. Fearful of a socialist government in their backyard, the US negotiates the Pact of Espino Negro with the rebels under which both sides would disarm in favor of a new Guardia Nacional and Díaz would remain president until new elections could be held. Augusto César Sandino, a rebel general, refuses the terms of the treaty and begins a campaign of guerilla warfare with the help of Mexican revolutionary Emiliano Zapata.
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16 May 1926 Death of Sultan Mehmed VI Passing away quietly in his sleep in 1926, Mehmet VI would be remembered by the Ottoman people as the Sultan that saved the Empire from the brink of destruction, yet ultimately proved unable to steer it on a radically new course. He was succeeded by Abdulmejid II.
Mehmed VI funeral.jpg
9 July 1926 Beginning of the Northern Expedition The Kuomintang government in Guangzhou launches the Northern Expedition, a campaign against the Northern military cliques with the long-term goal of unitung China under the flag of the KMT and establishing a Republic of China based on the progressive ideas of Sun Yat-sen. Hunan and Jiangxi quickly fall to the National Revolutionary Army, which soon begins a long march towards Wuhan in Hubei, one of the Northern Expedition's primary strategic targets.
20 September 1926 Yangtze Incident After reaching Wuhan in early September, a tenacious siege of the tri-city begins. While Hankou and Hanyang fall quickly, the Zhili garrison in Wuchang is not willing to surrender. When artillery strikes of the NRA accidentally hit Western gunboats on the Yangtze River, the foreign powers become increasingly wary. While an ultimatum by Chiang Kai-shek to immediately withdraw the ships is complied with by most powers, the Germans actively begin to supply the besieged Zhili garrison with supplies after learning that the Guangzhou Government is secretly supported by the Commune of France. When NRA forces open fire at the German supply ships which are disguised as postal boats, Germany officially gains a justification to actively intervene into the conflict by military force.
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7 November 1926 German intervention in the Northern Expedition Germany officialy intervenes on the side of the Beiyang Government against KMT forces, supporting the Zhili warlord Sun Chuanfang with forces and equipment as well as, in November, invading Guangzhou, the capital of the Kuomintang.
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The Government of India Act 1926 In British India, the colonial government, with the assent of the British crown, passes the Government of India Act, granting the Bombay government more autonomy and self-determination over their own affairs.
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Pétain coup d'etat In exile, the Republic remained unstable with a series of successive governments forming and dissolving. In response Marshal Petain led a military coup which saw him beign crowned President, the establishment of a military junta and a 'state of emergency' being declared, despite this Petain didnt change the constitution and allowed 'democracy' to continue.
25 December 1926 Death of Emperor Taishō of Japan Emperor Taishō of Japan dies of a heart attack at the Hayama Imperial Villa south of Tokyo at the age of forty-seven, having reigned for fourteen years. He is succeeded by his son Prince Regent Hirohito with the era name of Shōwa.


Date Event Description Picture
19 January 1927 Battle of Jinhua A major battle near Jinhua pitches the core of the National Revolutionary Army against the forces of warlord Sun Chuanfang, supported by German reinforcements from Qingdao. The Kuomintang is decisively defeated. Combined with the loss of their capital, morale is severely damaged and various units defect, desert, or outright disintegrate. Blamed for the disaster, Chiang Kai-shek is assassinated after which Wang Jingwei flees to the French Commune. Some remaining KMT units retreat to Yunnan, while others form an underground resistance.
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12 February/April 1927 Third Zhili-Fengtian War The Third Zhili-Fengtian War occurs, with the former victorious and taking Beijing with German assistance. Wu Peifu agrees to reinstall the deposed Xuantong Emperor to the throne in return.
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April 1927 Xuantong Restoration With the victory of the Zhili Clique, and the capture of Beijing, 'Henry' Puyi was reinstated as the Emperor of the reborn Qing. The controversial 2nd restoration would see Puyi as a powerless puppet to the 'Jade Marshal', Wu Peifu.
17 May 1927 Brazilian Civil War After the assassination of Washington Luis, Governor of the Brazilian state of São Paulo, the Brazilian Civil War is triggered; internally long-divided, the country finally implodes.
Brazilian Civil War Sao Paolo.jpg
4 June 1927 Creation of the British Local Defence Volunteers (L.D.V.) In response to 'loyalist guerrillas' still littering Northern England and Scotland, as part of the British Red Terror, the Republican government created the Local Defence Volunteers. Formed of civilians, their primary purpose would be act as auxiliaries for the hypothetical but imminent invasion and set with delaying any attacks until the army could regroup while also protecting areas of lesser importance to free up soldiers for other duties. With the end of the 'Phoney War', the L.D.V. would see its purpose shift from defending against an imminent invasion to acting as semi-reservist force (in preparing service-aged men for combat) and ready to be mobilised for defensive purposes in the event of global hostilities rising.
LDV forces.jpg
20 July 1927 Death of King Ferdinand I of Romania King Ferdinand of Romania dies and is succeeded by his son Carol II, who is determined to make things better than his father & transform Romania into a regional powerhouse again.
Carol II (2).jpg
21 November 1927 Columbine Mine massacre State militia fire on an unarmed group of striking coal miners in Serene, Colorado, leaving six dead and dozens injured. The growing leftist voices in government will not let the matter rest and eventually Federal charges are brought against the Rocky Mountain Fuel Company and several police officers. Although only one man is convicted, it is the first time in US labor history that anyone has been brought to justice for violence against strikers.
Columbine Mine massacre.jpg


Date Event Description Picture
8 March/August 1928 Fourth Zhili-Fengtian War The Fourth Zhili-Fengtian War breaks out, and soon escalates into a proxy war between Germany and Japan. When a train with foreign occupants is captured by bandits outside Shanghai, a portion of the Japanese military attempts an unauthorized rescue which devolves into a battle with local German and Chinese forces. Escalation is prevented by American mediation. The Shanghai Conference has all the warlords of China, besides the Fengtian Clique, recognize the Qing government. Several Eastern cities become the International Mandate for the Concessions, where foreign powers are free to trade equally and no Chinese armed forces may enter. After the war, Zhili dominance in China is sealed and a period of peace begins.
Shanxi Army.jpg
24 March 1928 Death of King Mindaugas II of Lithuania King Mindaugas II of Lithuania dies and, after a short succession crisis, is succeeded by his second son Karl Gero instead of his first born.
Mindaugas III.png
7 April 1928 Memel Uprising After the death of Mindaguas II, a small group of nationalists stage a coup against the 'pro-German' government; only about 50 nationalists manage to overpower the local forces in Memel, only to get massacred by German reinforcements. The failed coup plotters become martyrs of the nationalist cause.
16 April 1928 Venezuela becomes a democracy again. Juan "The Catfish" Gómez is ousted from power in Venezuela after losing military support. An interim government is put in place by the 'revolutionaries' to oversee the next democratic elections.
Venezuela 1928.jpg
4 July 1928 Shanghai Conference After the Jade Wind Incident threatened to bring Germany and Japan into war, the Great Powers found that an international concensus about China needed to be realized, specifically involving disputes arisen from the British Question in Asia. The conference produced the Legation Treaty, signed in the Legation Quarter of Beijing, which ended the Fourth Zhili-Fengtian War, required recognition of the Qing Government in Beijing by most warlords, and created the Legation Cities, enshrining the US 'Open Door' policy in China. The Fengtian Clique, which eventually set up the Fengtian Government as a counter-government, remained independent and within Japan's sphere of influence.
9 July 1928 1928 Brazilian Presidential elections Brazil has its first elections of its New Republic, following the chaos of the Brazilian Civil War. João Pessoa's Republican Party wins a landslide victory thanks to the support of his allied states.
1928 Brazilian Presidential elections.jpg
9 August 1928 Death of Grand Duke Friedrich II of Baden Grand Duke Friedrich II of Baden dies at the age of seventy-one, having reigned for just under twenty-one years. Upon his death the headship of the house is transferred to his first cousin, Prince Maximilian.
FriedrichII of Baden.jpg
15 August 1928 Burmese-Siamese War Burmese-Siamese tensions had grown over Thai monrities being involved in an insurgency against the government in Rangoon and the Karen rebels. Soon enough, disputed territories on the Kraburi River were shelled and officials from Siam claimed the small Siamese village of Ranong. Shortly after Siamese troops invade Burma to allegedly defend the Burma which is heavily plagued by internal unrest, and trigger the 36th Siamese-Burmese War.
2 September 1928 Cancelation of the Scottish Independence Referendum In the Union of Britain, a planned Scottish Independence Referendum does not take place after significance bipartisan violence occurs, additionally the leading pro-independence figures are arrested on no real charges, e.g. R. B. Cunninghame Graham.
John MacCormick.jpg
20 September 1928 Cuban Student Revolution In Cuba, the pro-American Machado dictatorship is ousted when the dictator is forced to flee to the US in response to strikes organized by the "University Student Directory" led by the student activist Rafael Trejo. The army quickly supports the candidacy of this young man as a compromise candidate.
Cuban Student Revolution.jpg
6 November 1928 1928 US Presidential election Republican Herbert Hoover easily defeats Governor Al Smith of New York. Norman Thomas runs for the Socialist Party, and wins several Midwestern states, while Jack Reed is elected Senator for New York in an upset. Huey Long becomes Governor of Louisiana.
Herbert Hoover Time cover 1928 .jpg


Date Event Description Picture
17 April 1929 1929 Chinese National Assembly elections Though the fraudulent elections insure a majority in the National Assembly for the Harmony Association, the political front of the Zhili Clique, other opposition parties gain seats as well, for example the New Chinese Empire Reform Association (NCERA).
Chinese National Assembly (Qing).jpg
12 June 1929 Treaty of Moulmein After German and Japanese mediation, the 36th Siamese-Burmese War ends in a decisive Siamese victory and the Treaty of Moulmein is signed during summer. Some territories are directly annexed into Siam, some stay under "temporary" occupation. The Salween River became the new natural border between Burma and Siam.
11 September 1929 Beginning of the Chaco War Following growing arms race, border clashes over the disputed and oil rich region of Chaco Bolivia launches an attack against Paraguayan-held positions in the area, triggering the Chaco War, also called "The War of Thirst".
Chaco War 2.jpg
6 October 1929 Cayenne Agreement The result of this was a landslide victory of the Unity Party in August of 1929, and Sir Gordon James Lethem vowing to "Solve the French issue once and for all". Lethem then held the Cayenne Conference where he and his party met up with Félix Éboué, governor of the French West Indies and his political accomplices. The eventual agreement, known as the "Cayenne Agreement", resulted in a moderate increase of French autonomy compared to the English, along with full voting rights for the French population and the ability to make political parties.
Cayenne Agreement.jpg
6 November 1929 Death of Grand Duke Maximilian of Baden After a little over a year as Grand Duke, Maximilian of Baden dies at the age of sixty-two and is succeeded by his son, Berthold.
Max von Baden.jpg


Date Event Description Picture
Deputy Chairman John Wheatley retires. Oswald Mosley is appointed his replacement A heart attack leaves the Union of Britain Deputy Chairman John Wheatley bedridden. After controversial discussions, a young radical, Oswald Mosley, is appointed his replacement.
Oswald Mosley Desk.jpg
6 March 1930 Death of Chancellor Alfred von Tirpitz Reichskanzler Alfred von Tirpitz dies. Considered the most successful and popular chancellor in German history behind Otto von Bismarck himself, he is replaced by Kuno Graf von Westarp.
Alfred von Tirpitz3.png
21 March 1930 Xikang War Due to a conflict arisen from the disputed province of Xikang Tibetan troops march against Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan. The Sichuan Clique is unable to mount a defence due to their preocupation with internal conflict and the looming famine. But a crushing defeat the Ma Clique under muslim warlord Ma Fuxiang, decide to intervene and occupy Tibetan Chamdo. In response, Tibet withdraws from western Xikang, but occupiues Sichuanese territory until the Jinsha River. This victory did not end the border conflict but merely left the frustated Tibetans on the defensive.
Xikang War 1.jpg
6 September 1930 Uriburu Coup in Argentina Former Inspector General of the army José Félix Uriburu, with the support of Manuel Carlés and the LPA, along with other far-right groups, launches a bloodless coup against the Argentinian government and proclaims himself President of Argentina. For the next two years, he will rule Argentina with an iron fist as the first corporatist dictator on the continent.
4 October 1930 Collapse of the Italian Federation The current Council of the Italian Federation's term expires, and, seeing the Federation as a dead idea, the Prime Minister of the Republic of Lombardy-Venetia decides not to renew the Council, forming instead the Italian Republic.
Vittorio Emanuele III with Ivanoe Bonomi.jpg


Date Event Description Picture
11 January 1931 Thomas Mann is appointed Britain's second Chairman of the Federal Congress The Union of Britain's first constitutionally standardized election results in a landslide win for the incumbent Labour-Popular Revolution Party coalition. Labour Party head Thomas Mann is appointed Britain's second Chairman of the Federal Congress.
24 February 1931 Death of Grand Duke Friedrich August II of Oldenburg Grand Duke Friedrich August II of Oldenburg dies at the age of seventy-eight, having reigned over Oldenburg for just over thirty years. He is succeeded by his son, Nikolaus, as head of the House of Holstein-Gottorp.
Friedrich August II of Oldenburg.jpg
April 1931 Terror attack in Baku In Baku, Azerbaijan, an Armenian terrorist detonates a bomb in a theater, killing 34 people, among them the famous screenwriter Jafar Jabbarli. The attack is considered an act of revenge for the Partition of Armenia in 1919.
Terror attack in Baku.jpg
May 1931 Beginning of the Austro-Hungarian economic recession The Austrian Creditanstalt bank declares insolvency, leading to the crash of the Vienna Stock Exchange and the worst bank failure in Austria since the 1870s. The crisis leads to the end of Austria-Hungary's relative financial stability and begins an era of economic recession.
Austro-Hungary Great Depression.jpg
Withdrawal of US marines from Nicaragua After the American withdrawal from Nicaragua in February, revolutionary Augusto César Sandino marches on the capital and proclaims the Revolutionary Republic of Nicaragua, the first Socialist country in Central America.
Nicaragua 1931 Daily Worker.jpg
Greek Revolution of 1931 The autocratic rule of 'Regent' Georgios Kondylis in Greece ends in a bloody revolution. Kondylis is deposed, killed & the Third Hellenic Republic is proclaimed. The first elections of the new republic would see the center-left New Liberal Union as the most dominant political party in the coalition government under the new Prime Minister Georgios Papandreou.
Third Hellenic Republic.jpg
Chilean Revolution Chile, after bankruptcy and several years of instability, has a Syndicalist revolution breaking out and succeeding in toppling the government thanks to large amounts of Navy and Army support. Arturo Puga becomes head of state.
Chilean Revolution.jpg
"Purge of Dhaka" During the "Purge of Dhaka", the Muslims in East Bengal are bloodily suppressed by Indian forces of the newly established Azad Hind government. The Muslim population reacts strongly and calls for secession from this 'Hindu' state escalate.
Purge of Dhaka.jpg
2 December 1931 1931 Salvadoran coup d'état In response to a cut in the salaries of the Armed Forces, Vice-President General Maximiliano Hernández Martínez would coup the Labor Party and President Arturo Araujo, this brought immediate strife to the nation, with a true restoration of democracy being ended right as it began. Soon all parties were banned besides the Pro-Patria Party (PPP).
1931 Salvadoran coup.jpg


Date Event Description Picture
22 January 1932 "The Massacre" in El Salvador Peasants, with the help of the Communist Party and local rulers such as Feliciano Ama, stage a rebellion against President Hernández Martínez. The Salvadoran Army, being vastly superior, brutally supresses the peasant rebellion.
The Massacre.jpg
18 February 1932 Death of King Friedrich August III of Saxony King Friedrich August III of Saxony dies at the age of sixty-six, having ruled Saxony for nearly twenty-eight years. He is succeeded by his son, Crown Prince Georg, as Georg II of Saxony.
Friedrich August III of Saxony.jpg
(early 1932) All Indian Muslim League secedes. Leaders of the All India Muslim League take that as a clear indication there would be no place for them in Azad Hind and secede. This marks the creation of the 'Lahore Government' as well as the conflict between this and 'Free India'.
All-Indian Muslim League.jpg
29 April 1932 Democracy is restored in Argentina With the death of Uriburu, the corporatist dictatorship in Argentina finds its end and democracy is restored. The new president, Julio Argentino Pascual Roca, of the National Democrat Party (PDN), promises to find a compromise with the syndicalists to the south and west.
Julio Argentino Pascual Roca Portrait.JPG
30 May 1932 'Parliamentary Crisis' In Britain, Deputy Chairman Mosley claims that the Independent Labor Party and the Liberal Party are planning to merge, which if true would give the new party a majority in the Provincial Parliament. Chairman Mann dissolves the house in response, giving the Trade Union Congress sole rule while authorizing the imprisonment of various opposition members such as Philip Snowden.
2 July 1932 Death of King Manuel II of Portugal King Manuel II of Portugal dies unexpectedly in his residence after suffocating from an abnormal swelling in the vocal folds of his larynx. His body is interred in the Royal Pantheon of the House of Braganza in the Monastery of São Vicente de Fora. Shortly after, the Miguelist Prince Duarte, who was already living in Portugal since 1928, is crowned King of Portugal, finally uniting the two succession branches after around 100 years of conflict.
Funeral of Manuel II.jpg
8 July 1932 Shanghai Uprising In China, the Shanghai Uprising begins mid-way through the year. Although the unrest is violently suppressed (with the help of German military officers), the incident showcases structural problems within the League of Eight Provinces, between signatories to the Legation Treaty, and for the Central Government. A dangerous precedent is also set for German involvement in China.
Beginning of Labour single-party rule Chairman Mann dissolves the Union of Britain's Provincial Parliament before permanently disbanding it. All opposition parties are effectively outlawed. This action is justified as an effort to stop revolutionary drift and maintain unity in the face of outwards agression.
Labour Propaganda.jpg
21 September 1932 Establishment of the Supervisory Board of the East Asian General Administration (AOG) To increase his independence and power League-Marshal Sun Chuanfang, through the late 20s, had granted non-legal concessions to German companies in East Asia known as the "German East Asia Society". But following the Shangai Uprising investor confidence in China began to turn. In response the Society decided to fully reject the 'Open Door policy' and created the Aufsichtsrat der Ostasiatischen Generalverwaltung (A.O.G.) to govern these concessions. This made foreign buisness easier and aided in the growth of German capital.
AOG Flag.svg
October 1932 Otávio Mangabeira is elected President of Brazil Otávio Mangabeira is elected 15th President of Brazil, the second President to be elected after the Brazilian Civil War. His election marks a further turn in Brazilian democracy towards "popular politics" and non-fraudulent voting, though the progress on these areas is limited.
8 November 1932 1932 US Presidential election Herbert Hoover is re-elected by the House of Representatives after the socialists win enough states to deny any party an electoral majority. This turned of events is widely viewed in a negative manner but nonetheless Hoover continues to serve in the office of President.
Hoover 1932.jpg
November 1932 Creation of the America First Party Senator Huey Long, smarting from his electoral defeat in securing the Democratic ticket, decides to create his own America First Party. It is entirely formed around his charismatic figure and espouses a wide platform of often contradicting populist policies.
Huey Long Marching.jpg
5 December 1932 December Revolution in Honduras Popular discontent against the pro-American regime swelled in 1932 when the country’s farmers and workers rose up in the December Revolution. Unable to contain the situation, President Tiburcio Carías Andino committed suicide. In the wake of the revolution, a peasant republic was declared and the executive presidency was replaced by a Directorial Council. All members of the government were made to swear an oath of loyalty to the Anti-Corruption Party, which pledged to reduce the United States' influence in Honduras.
December Revolution 1932 .jpg


Date Event Description Picture
8 June 1933 End of the Chaco War A peace treaty is signed between Paraguay as well as Bolivia, and the Chaco War ends in a crushing Paraguayan victory. Bolivia, in utter disarray, sees a radical deterioration of its republican instiutions as the Bolivian government's corrupt incompetence is blamed for the poor end to the war.
Chaco War End.webp
Creation of the new Councilist Assembly Thanks to the efforts of the Federationist and Autonomist factions in Labour, the Union of Britain restores its bicameral legislature, though the new Councilist Assembly is limited to a house of review.
Councilist Assembly.jpg
20 September 1933 Petko Stainov is made Prime Minister of Bulgaria Ferdinand I of Bulgaria and Crown Prince Boris orchestrate the appointment of another puppet - independent diplomat and parliamentarian Petko Stainov. He is backed by an alliance of the National Liberals and the United People’s Progressive Party - the “Second Liberal Concentration”. Soon, however, Stainov starts to develop positions of his own, and some say he seeks an opportunity to show his teeth.
Petko Staĭnov.jpg
17 December 1933 Death of the 13th Dalai Lama Thubten Gyatso, the 13th Dalai Lama and the most important spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhism, dies at age 57 in Lhasa. Known as a great reformer and modernizer and as the man who redeclared Tibetan independence in 1912 after centuries of foreign oppression, his death sends shockwaves through the kingdom. The 5th Reting Rinpoche Jamphel Yeshe Gyaltsen is immediately appointed temporary regent until a new Dalai Lama is found, but nonetheless, a bloody power struggle unfolds in Lhasa as political rivals in Tibet's highest spheres accuse each other for secretly murdering the Dalai Lama in the name of the Indian socialists, the Chinese or because of mere thirst for power.
13th Dalai Lama.jpg
29 December 1933 1933 Romanian snap election In Romania, King Carol II calls for sudden snap elections, which are very narrowly won by the far-right Legionary Movement of Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, mostly due to the disastrous reputation of the ruling Liberal Party and due to voting fraud, as Carol himself has an interest in a victory of the Legionaires are known as avid monarchists and want to restore Romania's lost glory. Codreanu is confirmed as Prime Minister in early January 1934, mere weeks after, his predecessor and now leader of the opposition Ion G. Duca is gunned down by territorists with alledged connections to the Iron Guard.


Date Event Description Picture
(early 1934) German Busch Becerra Coup Following the Bolivian defeat in the Chaco War the country saw its republic dissolve into a de facto dictatorship, under the war hero Germán Busch Becerra. Who created a ''Government of National Salvation'' and claims to work towards uniting the nation against corrupt politicians, towards solving the country's problems regarding poverty, not to mention avenging the momentary defeat against Paraguay in the Chaco War.
German Busch Becerra.png
April 1934 Rafael Franco is deposed in Paraguay. Rafael Franco and other radical leaders launch a revolution in Paraguay based on left-authoritarian principles, known as the February Revolution, but are deposed after a short three-month rule by Chaco War hero José Félix Estigarribia, who exerts some dictatorial powers.
Jose Felix Estigarribia Propaganda.jpg
Officer purge in Honduras Since the December Revolution popular opposition against the Directorial Council had grown because of the lack of reforms, continued economic repression and the fact that

despite the Council’s strong anti-socialist policy and increasingly authoritarian measures, much of Honduras descended into lawlessness, with left-wing militants left to run free in the countryside, attacking government property. To scement their control the Anti-Corruption Party purged a large number of army officers, perceived to be loyal to the old regime, an action that was met with strong disapproval by the other Central American nations.

Officer Purge in Honduras 2.jpg


Date Event Description Picture
Marmaduke Grove is elected Chairman of Chile Following 4 years of rebuilding under Arturo Puga's government, long after the 1931 Revolution which saw the creation of the Syndicalist Republic of Chile, Argentina's increasingly aggressive rhetoric towards Chile and Patagonian Worker's Front led to Marmaduke Grove becoming chairman due to his prior military experience and prominent revolutionary trajectory.
Marmaduke Grove speech.jpg
24 December 1935 Argentinian Christmas Coup Upon fears of a peaceful end to the conflict with Patagonia, Argentina's fragile democracy once again falls when the militant Liga Patriotica under Manuel Carlés with heavy assistance of the armed forces, seizes the government at Buenos Aires in the so-called "Christmas Coup". Soon all parties are banned as in the Uriburu Coup a few years earlier. Though the Liga Patriotica control the capital the various provinces of Argentina have yet to fall under direct Carlist control.
Christmas Coup.jpg
30 December 1935 Death of Rufus Isaacs Rufus Isaacs, was Viceroy and Governor-General of British India since 1921, he fought against the Indian Revolt, and lorded over the reduced British Raj to keep ‘Free India’ from seizing all the subcontinent. He dies aged 75 and leaves a power vacuum in the chaos-plagued British Raj.
Rufus Isaacs Viceroy.jpg