The Mexican Revolution
The failure of the 35-year long regime of president Porfirio Díaz, a series of political crises between competing factions of the elite, and the fraudulent elections of 1910 were among the first causes of the Mexican Revolution. Over the first years of that decade, the Revolution changed from a revolt against the Díaz government to a multi-sided civil war involving the middle class, indigenous peoples, the peasantry, industrial workers and several military cliques. Conservative forces under general Victoriano Huerta sought, starting in 1913, to reimpose the old Porfirian order, but revolts ensued under Venustiano Carranza and peasant leader Emiliano Zapata.
While Huerta was forced to resign in July 1914, the proposed Convention of Aguascalientes, an attempt to sort out a new revolutionary order, failed. Former allies now started fighting each other in yet another round of armed struggle. While the Zapatistas formed an insurrectional army in the southern states, Pancho Villa formed a guerrilla force in the north. While Carranza's Constitutionalist Army fought against both rebel armies, the fight would occasionally spill across the Rio Grande, with occasional attacks on American troops and the famous raid by Pancho Villa on the city of Columbus, New Mexico, in March 1916. This attack prompted an American punitive expedition under General John Pershing which, although it failed to completely capture Villa's forces, contributed to the international community recognizing the Carranza administration as the legitimate government of Mexico.
The Constitutionalist Army would decisively defeat the forces of Zapata and Pancho Villa at the Battle of Celaya in April 1915, paving the way for a new constitutional convention. Despite Carranza being confirmed as the new president of Mexico, the 1917 Constitution still contained many left-wing aspects, including anti-clerical elements, worker's rights and the basis for broad land reform in favor of the peasantry.
In the south, Constitutionalist forces under Pablo González attempted to wipe out Zapata's army, but the Zapatista guerrilla tactics prompted the involvement of Colonel Jesús Guajardo with the duty of killing Emiliano Zapata. Disagreements between the many Carrancista factions allowed Zapata to make the daring move of offering Guajardo the chance of changing sides. In the famous Engaño de Chinameca, where Guajardo's forces defected to Zapata, Jesús took weapons, supplies, and men with him, allowing Zapatismo to remain in fighting form for the rest of the Revolution.
By early 1919, General Álvaro Obregón had decided to use his immense popularity to run in the 1920 presidential elections. Carranza himself announced that we would not participate in these elections, instead endorsing an obscure diplomat, Ignacio Bonillas, planning to use him as his puppet. Near election day, Carranza attempted to arrest Obregón, who fled to the state of Guerrero. General Adolfo de la Huerta announces the Plan of Agua Prieta, a planned insurrection to depose Carranza. The pronunciamiento was a success, with over 70% of the Mexican army joining the plan. Carranza refused to surrender and attempted to flee to Veracruz, but he was ultimately betrayed. He was assassinated on the 21st of May 1920 in the mountainous north of Puebla.
Zapatista troops moved to take advantage of the situation, quickly displacing the forces of Pablo González and capturing important cities such as Cuernavaca, Cuautla, Xochimilco and Toluca, reaching Mexico City itself before Obregón's forces. Although the forces of both Obregón and De la Huerta were superior to Zapata's, these leaders accepted to form a national government and avoid a new bloody campaign, putting an end to the armed phase of the Revolution. Obregón became the new president of Mexico, while Zapata was confirmed as minister of agriculture and development in order to carry out his planned land reform project. Pancho Villa was offered the post of ambassador in the newly-formed Commune of France, coming into contact with socialist leaders such as Raymond Molinier, Pierre Frank and Alfred Rosmer.
Under Obregón, major reconstruction plans were initiated, intending to rebuild the damaged infrastructure. Zapata's land reform project redistributed nearly 45 million acres of arable land to the peasantry, creating the ejido system of communal ownership of land. Obregón's work was continued by the next presidents Adolfo de la Huerta (1923) and Jesús Guajardo (1928), with Zapata finally being elected president of Mexico in the 1932 elections.
Zapata's government is marked by an even greater investment in agriculture, allowing the ejidos to become productive enough to grow cash crops such as coating and henequen. Despite not being on the best of terms with Villa, Zapata made him his foreign minister, which helped create stronger diplomatic bonds with the Commune of France. Regardless of the great progress so far, the presidential elections remain a mystery. Pancho Villa, supported by both Zapata and De la Huerta, is expected to be elected as the new president, while totalitarian socialist Plutarco Elías Calles may cause some surprises. In addition, the United States of America had recently become more unstable in the last couple of years, and an American civil war looms on the horizon. Lastly, the question of the 27th constitutional article still needs an answer, in the matter of taking over the mineral and oil resources of the nation out of foreign hands.
President: Emiliano Zapata Salazar
Acting President: Vicente Lombardo Toledano
Secretary of Foreign Affairs: Eduardo Hay Fortuño
Secretary of Economy: Enrique Estrada Reynoso
Secretary of Public Safety: Doroteo Arango Arámbula
Head of the Military Intelligence: Plutarco Elías Calles
Secretary of National Defense: Augustín Mendoza Cais
Commander-in-Chief of the National Defense Army: Plutarco Elías Calles
Commander-in-Chief of the Mexican Navy: Heriberto Jara Corona
Commander-in-Chief of the Mexican Air Force: Agustín Olachea Avilés
As of 1936, the following political parties exist in Mexico.
Partido Pueblos Mexicano
Party President: Emiliano Zapata Salazar
Partido Mexicano de los Trabajadores
Party President: Vicente Lombardo Toledano
Party President: Plutarco Elías Calles
The totalist Maximistas party is infamously known for its violent attitude towards political rivals and militaristic stand, aiming for a re-armed Mexican state and the dissolution of ejidos.
Created by Plutarco Elías Calles, who is often called "el Jefe Máximo" (the maximum leader) for his almost dictatorial posture in his own party, and his second-in-command Lázaro Cárdenas del Río, the Maximistas are thought to install a totalitarian form of government in case of winning the next elections.
Partido Laborista Mexicano
Party President: Pascual Ortiz Rubio
After tremendous failures in the 1923 and 1928 elections, the once-promising bloc formed after the revolution is now in a dire situation, slowly losing support from the Mexican people. The social democrats won't have their own party for long if the Mexican syndicalist movement keeps on growing bigger and stronger.
The promise of economic reforms may make some Mexicans turn around and see if a new type liberalism is just what Mexico needs.
La Casa de Iturbide
Royal House Leader: María Josepha Sophia de Iturbide
The Imperial House of Mexico is almost unknown amongst the Mexican people, they have only read about Mexican kings and emperors in books, assuming that they have ever read one. The House of Iturbide is in a dire situation at best, as they have little or no claim strength to the Mexican throne.
The last member of this strange monarchic branch, María Josepha Sophia de Iturbide, currently resides in Austria where she has been given the status of political refugee.
Union Nacional Sinarquista
Party President: Salvador Abascal Infante
Being a minor player in politics, the populist Union Nacional Sinarquista (UNS or National Synarchist Union) is usually overlooked. Having the great majority of its members located in the state of Baja California makes this party almost irrelevant, yet quite dangerous when the right situation comes to pass...
Ejército Mexicano (Army)
Recently established in 1913, the Mexican army is still young and pretty weak, with an estimated 32,000 active personnel deployed throughout the country. Cavalry is still quite common and the army has yet to modernize.
The current service rifle is Mondragón Modelo 1908.
Being small, the Mexican navy is intended for defensive purposes only, even though military experts agree that Mexico has a huge potential in the naval scope.
Fuerza Aérea Mexicana (Air Force)
The Mexican Air Force is largely outdated, with the vast majority of its planes bought or directly borrowed from France or the USA. Currently, the only active squadron is the Escuadrón Aéreo de Defensa 201.