A political ideology is a certain set of ethical ideals, principles, doctrines, myths or symbols of a social movement, institution, class, or large group that explains how society should work and offers some political and cultural blueprint for a certain social order.
However, ideologies are often poorly defined or articulated, and can vary substantially according to political, cultural, and economic conditions. Many lack a clear structure, and exist primarily as an expression of power or in opposition to another set of ideas.
Revolutionary ideologies aim to replace the political, economic, and/or social status quo in their respective countries, often but not exclusively by force. Countries where this transition is underway, or has already been achieved, tend to exhibit socialist characteristics, where wealth inequality and distinctions between class are narrowed or eliminated entirely, though their implementation varies considerably.
These ideologies are also marked by a common but not universal, belief that their revolutionary aims ought to be realized on a global scale, rather than at a purely national level.
The term Totalism comes from the Totalist Charter, an agreement of cooperation between Oswald Mosley, Georges Valois and Benito Mussolini which outlined the main tenets of the ideology. Totalists abandon the federative element of Syndicalist state organization, stating that until world revolution has been achieved, revolutionary states need to be centralized and militarized to fight the remaining capitalist states. The extent to which society is transformed by Totalist regimes is significantly greater as well, often veering to totalitarian control of society and the construction of personality cults. "Totalism" is also often used to describe left-wing states which are not affiliated with Charter Totalism, but nevertheless display traits such as militarization, centralization, and totalitarian transformation of society.
Syndicalism is the leading left-wing revolutionary ideology whose rise to worldwide prominence began with the French revolution of 1919. Though Syndicalism is divided between various currents, some of them influenced by other ideologies such as Marxism and Anarchism, orthodox Syndicalism is based upon the works of the leaders of Confédération Générale du Travail (CGT), codified in the Charter of Amiens of 1906, and considers Mikhail Bakunin and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon to be its forerunners. Syndicalism is defined by the concepts of revolutionary spontaneity and direct action - the belief that the workers themselves, organized in labour unions, must combat capitalism, instead of relying upon an external agent such as a political party. The transformation of a capitalist society to a Syndicalist one must occur via a General Strike - a nationwide rejection of capitalism and a transfer of all means of production to labour unions. Syndicalist states are decentralized and federal, all industries are organized into syndicates, labour councils elected from these trade unions manage local governance, and central government is vested in a national congress of trade union representatives. The extent to which these tenets are implemented varies from country to country, however.
Radical Socialism is a catch-all phrase for the various socialist ideologies that aren't either a variant of syndicalism or totalism. Countries with this ideology operate with a socialist economy, usually accompanied by some form of elected government. Their ultimate goal is to create a paradise for the working class, the details of which varies from movement to movement.
Liberal ideologies tend to espouse democratic pluralist values, emphasizing the necessity of popular consent and equality before the law. States established along liberal lines will always contain one or more elected legislative bodies, but the organization of government, implementation of economic policy, and attitudes toward social reforms vary widely.
The collapse of the British Empire and America's ongoing internal tumult have led many to question the inherent stability of liberal systems of government.
Social Democracy aims to reform capitalism and humanise it by aligning it with the ethical ideals of social welfare while maintaining the capitalist mode of production, rather than creating an alternative socialist economic system. While usually promoting a plutocratic form of government and a heavily regulated market economy, some more radical streams exist.
Social Liberalism is a variation on mainstream market liberalism, with the main difference being the inclusion of various civil liberties as basic human rights. Espousing progressive social and economic policies, the social liberals aim to create a society where every individual is free to live his own life with full opportunities regardless of status.
Market Liberalism promotes an unregulated free market and a political system that is both democratic and plutocratic. Market liberals believe that the freer the market, the freer the people, and they will staunchly defend the political and economic rights of the individual.
Social Conservatism is centered on preserving traditional beliefs, attitudes, and philosophy, as well as society's traditional power dynamics while using the democratic system. Opposed to both radical and moderate changes to the status quo, conservatives want to keep society orderly and stable. Social conservatives usually promote a regulated market economy, but more liberal economic policies may be possible.
Reactionary ideologies tend to enshrine the necessity of order, tradition, and centralized authority, positioning themselves as bulwarks against the perceived instability of liberalism and destructive revolution.
Authoritarian Democracy combines strong executive power with a representative parliament and a partially democratic political system. Authoritarian democratic regimes often take a conservative stance on social issues and promote liberal-capitalist economies with limited state intervention. The aim of these regimes is to maintain national stability and provide the people both a popular and responsible government.
Paternal Autocracy is not a political ideology in the normal sense of the word, but rather a general term for the attitude these governments hold towards their citizens. The people are all subjects of the leader, either a king or a dictator, and it is the leader's job and duty to lead the state and society towards the righteous and best path while uniting the people of under his benevolent protection. These countries usually have a very authoritarian government, conservative social views, and a state-controlled economy.
National Populism is a term used to describe a variety of ultra-nationalist, radical religious, and militaristic movements, which typically venerate devotion to the state, unification under a strong leader, and a return to the ideals of a glorified past. Espousing extreme policies and often violent rhetoric, national populism is vehemently opposed by most other political parties.