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Egypt Flag
Flag of the Sultanate of Egypt
Full Name السلطنة المصرية

(Sultanate of Egypt)

Common Name Egypt
Anthem اسلمي يا مصر

(Eslami ya Misr)

Official Languages Arabic
Capital Cairo
Government Structure Unitary Constitutional Monarchy
Head of State Abbas II Hilmi Bey (also known as Abbas Hilmi Pasha)
Head of Government Aly Maher
Currency Egyptian pound
Established 1925
Area (core territory) Around 3,508,263 km²
Population (core territory) Around 22.15 million

The Sultanate of Egypt, also called Egypt or Egypt-Sudan, is a country in north-east Africa. It borders the Mediterranean to the north, the German-held Suez Canal to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Abyssinia to the southeast, Mittelafrika to the south, with the French Republic and the Emirate of Cyrenaica to the west.


Following the signing of the Peace with Honour, the Sultanate of Egypt remained a British protectorate with Hussein Kamel as Sultan. In 1917 Kamel died, and the throne went to his brother Fuad after Kamel’s son Kamal al-Din Husayn refused it. Faud I’s reign would start off rocky for as a king having to contend with the British control and the growing nationalist sentiment that opposed the influence of the British.

The Egyptian Revolution of 1925

Nationalist sentiment kept growing, and when the British Revolution occurred, the Egyptians revolted. However, seeing this as a chance to prove to the Egyptian people that he was no mere puppet of the British and to take advantage of the situation and more than a little fearing that the revolution might turn on him in their nationalistic fervor. Fuad would present himself as a staunch Egyptian nationalist and help lead the uprising against the British.

In the midst of all the chaos going on around the world and in Egypt in particular, Germany seized control of the Suez canal for global safety and security. While many wanted to fight the German Empire for the Canal, Fuad decided against it, knowing only too well that he couldn’t resist the collapsing British Empire and the German Empire at the same time.

One of the major things Fuad would do in order to appease his subjects was the creation of a constitution. Despite the tension with the Kaiserreich over the canal zone, the Egyptian Constitution of 1925 would be modeled on that of the German Empire. The Constitution had the intended effect upon the people of Egypt and helped cement Sultan Fuad as a popular leader throughout Egypt.

The new Sultanate of Egypt

The revolution of 1925 would result in changes throughout Egyptian society. Most obviously was Egyptian Nationalism. Long pushed underground due to Ottoman and British control of the region, for the first time since Muhammad Ali himself Egypt was allowed to be herself. Another consequence was be that new parties were created or gain prominence. The Wafd party, one of the leading parties of the revolution of ‘25, would become the dominant party during this time. The title Pasha was seen as being un-Egyptian and tied to the Ottomans and was abolished, through their status as nobles among the upper class were not changed.

The twenties would see Egypt engage in industrialization as she tried to catch up with Europe. Fuad and his prime ministers saw that Egypt was still rather backward, the Ottomans and the British did little for her. The Wafd party lead by the charismatic Saad Zaghloul sought a modernization program to help strengthen Egypt.

The Modernization program also combined social reform and secularism. Culturally it also gave rise to feminism, spearheaded by upper-class women like Safiya Zaghloul (wife of Prime Minister Saad Zaghloul) and Huda Sha'arawi. Huda Sha’arawi would create the Egyptian Feminist Union following the revolution, while Safiya became famous for helping to get women out onto the streets in opposition to the British and their puppet Faud. This activism did not end with the Egyptian revolution.

However, the rise in the liberalization of the Wafd government would lead directly to the creation of the Ittihad Party. The Ittihad party marked out a distinctly anti-liberal position and strong support for the religious policies and social conservative policy. However, the Ittihad party gained support from its plans to push in education and welfare policies. While they are reactionary, they do believe in modernization finding a valuable niche in teaching about Islam through cinema.

During this time Fuad would have an increasing number of conflicts with the liberals within his government. The Liberals sought to weaken the power of the monarchy and turn Egypt into a true constitutional monarchy with the Sultan as a figurehead. Fuad, however, preferred the conservative position of the status quo in terms of his position and power. Though there were rumors that he wanted to be an absolute monarch, he would never publicly suggest such sentiments even if he did favor it.

A Chance at Greatness

By the thirties, the liberal golden age was going strong. However internally there were some shakeups. The 1931 election would see the Watani emerge as the winner with Hafiz Ramadan becoming Prime Minister. Party this was helped by the fact that the Wafd Party split in 1928 between those that sought to go even further calling themselves Saadist as they believed in carrying out the legacy of Saad Zaghloul. The new party called the Liberal Constitution Party or Liberal Party for short believed in going further with social reforms then the Wafd.

The Watani did keep a number of the reforms the Wafd brought they did seek to roll back some the changes that tried to make the sultan a mere figurehead. They were however not interested in the Sultan becoming an absolute monarch, however, no matter how much both the Liberals and Wafdist accused them of such.

However, the Watani’s governments opened up a political question that refused to be solved by 1936. How much power should the Sultan have? Some think the status quo is good, while the Wafd and the liberals think he should be more of a figurehead. Then there were those that favored the opposite, notably the Ittihad Party which thought the Sultan should have more power.

It was in the thirties that a plan began to be prepared for going against the Ottoman Empire. The rise in Egyptian nationalism brought back many who sought to restore the glory of Egypt. With the Ottomans in a decline plans began to be drawn up for a grand alliance, the Cario Concordat between the Arabian states and Egypt in order to take down the Ottoman Empire.

The rise of Egyptian Nationalism also saw an uptick in anti-ottoman and anti-Turkish sentiment as the Ottomans were regarded just like the British, an imperialist power keeping Egypt down. As 1936 many are planning on a great conference in Cairo to bring down the Ottoman Goliath and build a new empire from its ashes even though the various political factions may differ as to what this new empire will look like.

Question of Identity

Since the revolution in 1925, questions about Egyptian Identity started to become asked by intellectuals of all stripes. Questions about what exactly was an Egyptian, what did it mean to be Egyptian, and when was Egypt great were asked by all people throughout Egypt. By 1936 two competing movements have emerged to answer these questions.

Pharaonism: They look to the pre-Islamic past to well the days of the Pharaohs for a time when Egypt was truly great and powerful. They argue that Egypt is a Mediterranean civilization and stress the role of the Mediterranean sea within Egyptian Culture, though they do not neglect the Nile. Largely it aligns with the Liberal parties though strictly speaking it is not liberal, and even some of the Watani support it, though admittedly not that many. It is the movement that is currently in vogue and the most influential.

Islamism: The Second cultural movement is the Islamist movement that arose as a counter to the more mainstream Pharaonism. They answer the question as to when was Egypt great by looking to the Fatimid Caliphate and the Ayyubid dynasty. Instead of the Pharaohs, whom they decry as pagan and absolute tyrants. They look back to the time when Egypt was the center of the Islamic world. When a multi-ethnic and tolerant Egypt was the dominant Islamic power. This cultural movement is more of a conservative counter to the more mainstream Pharaonism and is largely tied to the Conservative movements, particularly the Ittihad Party.

It should be noted that both camps support a multi-ethnic Egypt, both Pharaonists and Islamist believe that Egypt has always been a multi-ethnic state. Both concepts are largely romantic nationalist in nature and have an impact on culture and the arts.


The 1925 Revolution transformed Egypt in tremendously, from the decision to abolish the title of Pasha as being imposed upon the Egyptians by the Turks to the German Inspired constitution. Overnight a number of new political parties came into being. Most fell into either the camp of liberal or conservative. By 1936, four of the many new parties have emerged to dominate politics.

  • Hizb al-Ahrar al-Dusturiyyin: The Liberal Constitutional Party is the youngest mainstream party, breaking off from the Wafd Party in 1928. Profoundly supportive of social liberal reforms and the biggest supporters of a secular, liberal, Egyptian monarchy. They are sometimes called Saadist since they strongly identify with the policies of Saad Zaghloul.
  • Hizb al-Wafd: Despite the split that formed the Liberal Constitution Party, the Wafd Party remains the largest and most popular liberal Party. The party is strongest among the urban middle class. Similar to the Liberal Constitutional Party, they also believe in a secular and liberal Egyptian monarchy with the sultan retaining less power than he holds currenlty.
  • Hizb al-Watani: The leading conservative party in Egypt. They believe in keeping the Egyptian monarchy’s power as it is. Their main power base is among the rural farmers. While supporting the general secular ideals of the constitution of ‘25, they believe there should be greater emphasis on the role of religious values in both Muslims and Christians within Egyptian society.
  • Hizb al-Ittihad: The second newest party, the Ittihad is staunchly loyal to the royal family though they do not believe the monarchy should be absolute. They think that the government should actively support social and religiously conservative values for the stability of the country as well as governmental control of the Awqaf, distribution of public and private endowments.

There are of course other parties in the Sultanate such as the Hizb al-Masri al-Dimuqrati al-Ijtma'i or Egyptian Social Democratic Party which looks to the German SPD as inspiration. They are a small minority within the Egyptian political system.

Sultan of Egypt: H.R.H. Fuad I

Prime minister: Aly Maher

Minister of Foreign Affairs: Hussein Serry

Minister of Finance: Hassan Allam

Minister of Security: Abdelfattah Amr


Royal Egyptian Army

The Egyptian army is still training to become the military force it dreams itself to be. Centuries of being under the thumb of the Ottomans and the Decades under the British prevented the Egyptian Army from becoming a modern military force upon independence. Despite this, plans are in the work to reform the army and make it a formidable force, one that shall take the Ottomans down.

Royal Egyptian Navy

When the Egyptian Revolution began in 1925, a few of the British ships docked in Alexandria, and Port Said was taken over by the Egyptian revolutionaries. While these ships are old and mostly Weltkrieg era models, plans have also been put in place to import newer ships or build them herself.

Egyptian Army Air Force

The Egyptian Army Air Force is the youngest section of the armed forces and technically part of the Army. This has caused some friction in the EAAF, as the pilots wish for the Airforce to be an independent branch. That said, the pilots do what they can to patrol the skies of the vast land that is the Sultanate of Egypt.

Foreign Relations

Egypt has hostile relations with the Ottoman Empire and many see the next few years as the beginning of a new era for the region with Egypt as the dominant power. Of course, such an ambition will require planning to bring into being.

When it comes to Tripolitania, the relationship is rather complicated. King Idris of Tripolitania is in exile in Cairo and seeks to reclaim his throne. The government supports this endeavor and if such a thing were to occur Tripolitania would quickly become friends with Egypt. As it stands now, Egypt regards the country as a puppet of the Ottomans.

There is still tension with the Germans over their control of the Suez Canal Zone. Despite this, in recent years there has been more and more German investment in Egypt. A top destination for tourists from Germany, it has become popular for them to travel via Zeppelin .

Egypt has good relations with the various Arab countries such as Jabal Shammar, Yemen, and Nejd. Though for the most part Egypt keeps these realms to an arm's length, many have begun to wonder if a united Arabia would make a good ally.

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